Test 1

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Test 1
2010-05-22 15:05:50
Chemistry EKU Chapter 1

Chemistry McMurry and Fay Fifth Edition
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  1. accuracy
    how close to a true value a given measurement is.
  2. alkali metals
    group 1a: lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs). Often soft silvery metals, react rapidly w/ water to form products that are basic [alkaline].
  3. alkaline earth metals
    group 2a: berillium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), radium (Ra). These are lustrous silvery metals but are less reactive than group 1a.
  4. centimeter
    1 cm = 0.01m
  5. chemical properties
    characteristics that involve a change in chemical makeup
  6. chemistry
    study of composition, properties, and transformations of matter
  7. conversion factor
    a relationship between two units
  8. cubic centimeters
    1 cubic centimeter (cc) = .001 dm cubed = 10^-6 m cubed= 1 mL
  9. cubic decimeter
    1 dm^3 is = to 1 L
  10. density
    the mass of an object divided by its volume. density=mass (g)/ volume (mL or cm) cubed
  11. dimensional analysis
    a quantity described in one unit is converted into an equivelant quality w/ a differnt unit by using a conversion factor to express the relationship between the units.

    ex. 1m/39.37inches=39.37 inches/1m=1
  12. element
    the fundamental substance that cannot be chemicaly changed or broken down into anything simpler
  13. extensive properties
    • values that depend on the sample size
    • ex. an ice cube is muchsmaller than an iceburg
  14. gram
    (g) 1g=.001kg
  15. giga
    G= 10^9 power
  16. mega
    M) 10^6
  17. kilo
    (k) 10^3
  18. hecto
    (h) 10^2 or 100
  19. deca
    (da) 10^1 or 10
  20. deci
    (d) 10^-1
  21. centi
    (c) 10^-2 = 0.01
  22. mili
    (m) 10^-3
  23. micro
    (greek m) 10^-6
  24. nano
    (n) 10^-9
  25. pico
    (p) 10^-12
  26. group
    vertical colums in periodic table
  27. hallogen
    group 7a: florine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I)- these are colorful corrosive nonmetals. they are found in nature only, combined w/ otehr elements. group name is derived from the greek word (hals) meaning salt.
  28. innertransition metal group
    the 14 groups shown separetely at the bottom the table.
  29. intensive properties
    have values that do not depend on amount of sample. ex. temperature and melting point.
  30. Kelvin
    (K) 273 degrees K= 0 degrees C =32 degrees F.
  31. main group (periodic table)
    the 2 larger groups on left and 6 larger groups on right
  32. mass
    the amount of matter in an object
  33. matter
    a catchall term used to describe anything w/ a physical presence; anything you can touch, taste or smell
  34. metal
    largest category of elements, found on left side of periodic table, bounded on the right by a zigzag line running from Boron (B) to Astatine (At). metals are characterized by their apperance, have silvery shine, malleable rather than brittle, can be twisted and drawen into wire, and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  35. noble gas
    group 8a: Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn). they are colorless gasses w/ low chemical activity * Helium and Neon won't combine w/ other elements. * Ar, Kr, and Xe combine w/ very few elements
  36. non-metal
    found on right side of periodic table, except for Hydrogen. 11 of 17 are gases. 1 is a liquid (bromine). 5 are solids at room temp (Carbon, Phosphorus, sulfur, Selenium, and Iodine). Not silvery, several are brigtly colored, they are brittle (not maleable), and they are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  37. period
    seven horizontal rows
  38. periodic table
    the grid of elements divided into seven horizontal rows (called periods) and 18 colums (called groups).
  39. physical property
    characteristics that do not involve a change in a sample's chemical makeup. ex. color, size
  40. precision
    how well a # of independent measurements agree w/ one another.
  41. property
    any characteristic that can be used to decribe or identify matter
  42. semi-metals
    properties are intermediate between those of their metalllic andnon-metallic neighbors. Most are silvery in appearance and all are solid at room temp. They are brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity
  43. SI unit
    french systeme internationale d'unites (metric system) [7 fundamental units.]
  44. 7 fundamental SI units
    • mass kilogram kg
    • length meter m
    • temperature (T) Kelvin K
    • amount of substance Mole mol (n)
    • time (t) second s

    • electircal current Ampere (Amp)
    • luminous intensity candela (cd)
  45. significant figure
    total # of didgits recorded for measurement. 4 rules.
  46. 4 Sig Fig rules
    • 1) all non-zero #s are significant
    • 2) embedded zeros are significant
    • 3) (leading) zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant
    • 4) terminal are significant if an explicit decimal point is written. [ ex. 100. = 3 sig fis.]
    • ARE Not significant if there is no decimal point. ex. 100 = 1 sig fig.
  47. theory
    consistent explanations of a particular hypothesis
  48. transition metal group
    • the ten smaller groups in the middle of the table [groups 3b-2b]. colums 3-12.
    • 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 8b, 8b, 1b,2b.
  49. measuring and significant figures
    • 1) report to the # of places the device allows
    • 2) estimate and report one additional place to the right
  50. 1inch is = to______cm
    1 foot is = to _____ in
    1 yard=______ft
    1mile= ______ft
    1 mile =_____yards
    1 in= 2.54 cm

    1 foot = 12 in

    1 yard = 3ft

    1 mile= 5,280ft

    1 mile = 1,760 yards
  51. 1 lb= _____g
    1lb= _____oz
    1 ton=____lbs
    • 1lb= 454.55g
    • 1 lb= 16-oz
    • 1 ton= 2,000 lbs
  52. freezing point of water
    • 32 F
    • 0 C
    • 273 Kelvin
  53. boiling point of water
    • 212 F
    • 100C
    • 373 Kelvin
  54. formula for converting C to F
    degrees C = (degrees F -32) X 5/9ths
  55. 1 liter = __quarts
    1 liter = 1.057 qts.
  56. volume formulas (2)
    • 1) volume= length X width X heigth and (length X width = area). Cubes and redtangles.
    • 2) volume = (area X heigth) and volume = (pi R^2) X heigth. Cylinders. [cm^3=1 mL=1 cc).
  57. density
  58. mass
    density X volume
  59. volume
    volume= mass/density
  60. standard
    a point of comparison. water is the standard
  61. qualifications for a standard
    • 2) must be easily accessible
    • 3) identical properties over a wide range of temp.
  62. density is temp. dependent
    decreas temp. = increase in density and solid will sink in liquid
  63. calculations and reporting sig figs. 2 rules (adding and subtracting rule) (multiplicaiton and divison rule)
    • 1) report answer to match# of sig. figs. to the multiplicand w/ the fewest sig. figs. (multiplication and division)
    • 2) report final answer to match the # of sig. figs in the add-in w/ fewest places to right.
    • * answer should always reflect the least certain #