Ch 5 Biology

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Author:
hchristensen
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203073
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Ch 5 Biology
Updated:
2013-02-24 18:42:53
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Questions from Ch 5 Biology for Hi-Q
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  1. What is defined as the ability to do work?
    energy
  2. What is the making or breaking of chemical bonds called?
    chemical reaction
  3. What universal law states that energy can change from one state to another, but it can never be destroyed?
    first law of thermodynamics
  4. What is the study of energy called?  It means heat changes.
    thermodynamics
  5. What is a measure of the random motions of molecules called?
    heat energy
  6. What universal law concerns the transformation of potential energy into heat, or random molecular motion?  It states that the disorder in a closed system like the universe is continuously increasing.
    second law of thermodynamics
  7. What is a measure of the degree of disorder of a system called?
    entropy
  8. In a chemical reaction, what are the molecules you start with called?
    reactants (substrates)
  9. What are reactions that release energy called?
    exergonic
  10. What are reactions that absorb energy called?
    endergonic
  11. What is the extra energy required to destabilize existing chemical bonds and so initiate a chemical reaction called?
    activation energy
  12. What is the process of lowering the activation energy of a reaction called?
    catalysis
  13. What are the catalysts used by cells to touch of particular chemical reactions called?
    enzymes
  14. What is the site on the enzyme surface where the reactant fits called?
    active site
  15. What is the site on the reactant that binds to an enzyme called?
    binding site
  16. What are enzymes that have shapes that can be altered by the binding to their surfaces of "signal" molecules called?
    allosteric
  17. What is a protein that regulates transcription of mRNA from DNA by binding to the operator and so preventing RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter called?
    repressor
  18. What is the signal molecule called when the enzyme may not be able to bind the reactants unless the signal molecule is bound to the enzyme?
    activator
  19. What is the site where the signal molecule binds to the enzyme surface called?
    allosteric site
  20. Enzymes are often regulated by what mechanism, where the product of the reaction acts as the repressor?
    feedback inhibition
  21. What type of enzyme inhibition occurs when there is competition with the substrate for the same active site?
    competitive inhibitors
  22. What type of enzyme inhibition occurs when they bind to the enzyme at the allosteric site, changing the shape of the enzyme and making it unable to bind to the substrate?
    noncompetitive inhibitors
  23. What process, occurring in the mitochondrion, breaks down the sugar molecule glucose?
    cellular respiration
  24. When an atom or molecule loses an electron, it is said to be _____, and the process by which this occurs is called ______.
    • oxidized
    • oxidation
  25. When an atom or molecule gains an electron, it is said to be ______, and the process is called _____.
    • reduced
    • reduction

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