Chapter 7 notecards.txt

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Chapter 7 notecards.txt
2013-03-01 06:12:28

anatomy chapter 7
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  1. What are some components of the skeletal system?
    • Bones
    • Cartilage
    • Ligaments
    • Connective tissues
  2. What are two types of bones?
    • Compact
    • Spongy
  3. What is Compact bone also called?
    Dense or cortical bone
  4. What kind of tissue is primarily found in Compact bone?
    Dense Connective tissue
  5. What is 80% of bone mass?
    Compact bone
  6. What is spongy bone also called?
    cancellous or trabecular bone
  7. What is 20% of bone mass?
    Spongy Bone
  8. Two types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Fibro Cartilage
  9. What kind of cartilage attaches ribs to the sternum?
    Hyaline Cartilage
  10. What is the model for formation of most bones?
    Hyaline Cartilage
  11. What cartilage with stands compression?
  12. What cartilage forms intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and cartilage pages of the knees?
  13. What anchor bone to bone?
  14. What anchor muscle to bone?
  15. Bones are _______, _________, and are also a _______ for the body.
    • Protect
    • support
    • fromework
  16. Bones serve as attachment sites for
    • skeletal muscles
    • soft tissues
    • some organs
  17. What is Hemopoiesis?
    process of blood cell production
  18. Where does Hemopoiesis occur in?
    Red bone marrow connective tissue
  19. Red bone marrow connective tissues contain _____ cells that form blood cells and platelets.
  20. What is calcium needed for?
    • muscle contraction
    • blood clotting
    • nerve impulse transmission
  21. Bone stores…
    Calcium and phosphate
  22. The phosphate stored in bones are used for….
    • ATP utilization
    • Plasma membrane
  23. Where in the bones are lipids stored?
    yellow bone marrow
  24. What are the four classes of bone?
    • long bone
    • short bone
    • flat bone
    • irregular bone
  25. Flat bones form…
    • the roof of the skull
    • scaplae
    • sternum
    • ribs
  26. What is the medullary cavity?
    Hallow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis
  27. What does the Medullary Cavity contain?
    red bone marrow in children
  28. what is the tough sheath covering the outer surface of bone?
  29. Periosteum if attached to bone by what?
    perforating fibers (numerous collagen fibers)
  30. Where do artery and vein exit from?
    Nutrient foramen
  31. what is bone marrow?
    soft connective tissue of bone
  32. bone marrow has what 2 parts?
    red and yellow
  33. red bone marrow is also known as...
    myeloid tissue
  34. red bone marrow is hemp-______ which means?
    • -poetic
    • blood cell forming
  35. what 3 things do red  bone marrow contain?
    • reticular connective tissue
    • immature blood cells
    • fat
  36. where can you find red bone marrow in children and in adults?
    • in children in the spongy bone and medullary cavity of long bone
    • in adults its in the axial skeleton, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  37. what produces yellow bone marrow?
    red bone marrow degeneration
  38. what is yellow bone marrow?
    fatty substance
  39. may yellow bone marrow convert back to red bone marrow?
  40. what is the primary component of bone?
    bone connective tissue
  41. another word for bone connective tissue is...
    osseous connective tissue
  42. what is bone connective tissue composed of?
    cells and extracellular matrix
  43. what four cells of bone are found in bone connective tissue?
    • osteoprogenitor cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  44. what are osteoprogenitor cells?
    stem cells derived from mesenchyme
  45. what do osteoprogenitor cells do?
    produce cells that mature into osteoblasts
  46. where can you find osteoprogenitor cells?
    periosteum and endosteum
  47. what do osteoblast secrete?
  48. what are osteocytes?
    mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts
  49. what detects mechanical stress on bone?
  50. whats involved in breaking down bone?
  51. what is derived from fused bone marrow?
  52. osteoclasts are _____-cytic cells
  53. what is a collagen protein found in the bone matrix and produced by osteoblast?
  54. ground substance of bone?
  55. what are the some components of the bone matrix?
    • osteoid
    • calcium phosphate
    • hydroxyapatite
  56. what is compact bone composed of?
  57. what are osteons?
    small cylindrical structure basic unit of mature compact bone
  58. what lies central of the osteon and allows blood vessels and nerves to travel through it?
    central canal
  59. what are concentric lamellae?
    rings of bone connective tissue surrounding the central canal
  60. osteocytes are found in small spaces between _____ _______ and hel maintain the ______ _______.
    • concentric lamellae (lacunae) 
    • bone matrix
  61. what are canaliculi?
    tiny interconnecting channels within bone connective tissue
  62. what is something important canaliculi take part of?
    allowing the travel of nutrients, minerals, gases, and wastes between blood vessels and osteocytes
  63. what are perforating canals?
    canal containing blood vessels and nerves perpendicular to the central canal
  64. what is the difference between external circumferential lamellae and internal circumferential lamellae?
    external runs immediatelt internal to bone periosteum where as the internal one runs internal to the endosteum
  65. what is interstitial lamellae?
    lamellae found between osteons
  66. what are some components of spongy bone?
    • trabeculae 
    • parallel lamellae
  67. what are trabeculae?
    open lattice of narrow rods and plates of bones bone marrow filling space between
  68. what are parallel lamellae?
    lamellae parallel where osteocytes rest between lamellae
  69. what do osteoclast do?
    break down bone
  70. what do osteoblasts do?
    secrete osteoid and build bone
  71. hyaline cartilage contains no...
    bone or nerves
  72. what are the 3 structures of hyaline cartilage?
    • chondroblasts
    • chondrocytes
    • perichondrium
  73. what are chondroblasts?
    produce cartilage matrix
  74. what are chondrocytes?
    chondroblasts that have been encased within the matrix occupy spall spaces called lacunae
  75. what is perichondrium?
    • dense irregular connective tissue
    • covers cartilage and helps maintain its shape
  76. where does appositional growth occur in cartilage?
    on the outside edge out
  77. where does interstial growth occur?
    within the internal regions of cartilage
  78. the formation and development of bone connective tissue is called?
  79. when does ossification occur?
  80. intramembranous ossification produces....(4)
    • flat bone of skull
    • central parts of clavival
    • some of the facial bones
    • mandible
  81. when does intramembranous ossification occur?
    when mesynchyme becomes thickenes with capillaries
  82. steps of intramembranous ossification....  (4)
    • 1. ossification centers form within thickened regions of mesychme
    • 2.osteoid undergoes calcification
    • 3. periosteum forms
    • 4. lamellar bone replaces woven bone
  83. what is produced by endochondral ossification?
    • bones of the upper and lower limbs
    • pelvis
    • vertebra
    • ends of the clavicle
  84. whats the steps of long bone development in a limb?
    • 1. the fetal hyaline model develops 
    • -chondroblasts begin to secrete cartilage matrix 
    • 2. cartilage calcifies, periosteal bone collar forms around diaphysis 
    • -matrix begins to calcify and chondrocytes die
    • -osteoblasts develop and begin secreting osteoid
    • -form a layer of osteoid around calcified cartilage shaft termed periosteal bone collar
    • 3.primary ossification center forms in the diaphysis.
    • 4. secondary ossification center form in epiphyses.
    • -hyaline cartilage calcifies and egenerates
    • -blood vessels and osteoprogenitor cells enter
    • 5. bone replaces cartilage, except articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates.
    • 6. epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines
  85. growth in long bone continues until _____ ______ is converted to the ______ ______
    • epiphyseal plates 
    • epiphyseal line
  86. when does bone growth and remodeling occur?
    during embryologic development
  87. bone growth in length is termed...
    interstitial growth
  88. bone growth in diameter is termed...
    appositional growth
  89. interstitial growth is dependent upon cartilage growth where?
    epiphyseal plate
  90. what are the 5 continuous zones of epiphyseal plate?
    • resting cartilage
    • proliferation cartilage
    • hypertrophic cartilage
    • calcified cartilage
    • ossification zone
  91. where does appositional growth occur?
  92. appositional growth happens because of...
    the external circumferential lamellae increases in number
  93. what increases bone mass?
    weight-bearing activities
  94. what decreases bone mass?
    reduced collagen formation unstressed bones
  95. what are hormones?
    molecules released from one cell into the blood
  96. ______ can affect bone composition and growth patterns.
  97. 4 hormones that influence bone growth?
    • sex hormones
    • thyroid hormones
    • growth hormones
    • seratonin
  98. what is calcium required for?
    • initiation of muscle contraction
    • exocytosis of molecules from cells
    • stimulation of the heart by pacemaker cells 
    • blood clotting
  99. what two primary hormones regulate blood calcium?
    • calcitriol
    • parathyroid hormone
  100. 3 steps of vitamin d activated to calcitriol
    • 1. uv light coverts precursor molecule in blood to vitamin d 
    • 2. vit-D circulates through the body 
    • -converted to calcidiol by liver enzymes
    • -addition of -OH group
    • 3. calcidiol circulates in blood 
    • - converted to calcitriol by kidneys
    • -OH added again
    • -more calcitriol is formed if PTH is present
  101. _______ stimulates absorption of ____ ions from the ______ ______ into the _____
    • calcitriol
    • calcium
    • small intestine
    • blood
  102. when is PTH released?
    in responce to reduced blood calcium levels
  103. actions of parathyroid hormone and calcitriol are....
    • elevate blood calcium
    • return calcium levels within homeostatic range
  104. calcitriol alone increasing absorption of ______ from where?
    • calcium
    • small intestines
  105. calcitonin is released in response to....
    high blood calcium levels
  106. calcitonin inhibits what in bone connective tissue?
    osteoclast activity
  107. calcitonin stimulates what to increase what kind of loose?
    stimulates the kidneys to increase the loss of calcium through urine
  108. two ways aging affects bone?
    • decreased tensile strength of bone
    • - reduced rate of protein synthesis by osteoblasts
    • bone loss of calcium and other minerals
    • -thinner and weaker
    • -insufficient ossification, termes osteopenia
  109. what is osteopenia?
    decline of osteoblast activity
  110. what is osteoporosis?
    reduced bone mass
  111. with age can reduced hormones be a thing?
  112. what is the term for a break in bone?
  113. what are some types of fractures? 4
    • stress
    • pathalogic
    • simple
    • compound
  114. what is pathalogic fractures?
    weaking in bone by disease
  115. what is simple fracture?
    broken bone not penetrating the skin
  116. what is a compound fracture?
    piercing overlying skin
  117. what is the healing time for simple fractures?
    2-3 months
  118. four steps of bone fracture repair?
    • fracture hematoma
    • -blood vessels torn within periosteum
    • fibrocartilaginous callus
    • -regenerated blood capilaries infiltrating hematoma
    • -fibroblasts producing collagen fibers
    • -chondroblasts forming dense connective tissue
    • hard callus
    • -osteoblasts adjacent to callus producing trabeculae
    • -callus replaced by this bone
    • -forms a hard (bony) callus
    • -continues to grow and thicken

    • bone is remolded
    • -osteoclasts removing excess bony material