Muscle/Joints

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Author:
reccarynn
ID:
203085
Filename:
Muscle/Joints
Updated:
2013-02-24 18:46:09
Tags:
articulations joints muscles
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Description:
Joints/muscles
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  1. Frontalis
    • Head - facial expression
    • Raises eyebrows
  2. Occipitalis
    • Head - facial expression
    • Fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly
  3. Orbicularis oculi
    • Head - facial expression
    • Closes eyes
  4. Zygomaticus - major and minor
    • Head - facial expression
    • Raises lateral corners of mouth upward
  5. Orbicularis oris
    • Head - facial expression
    • Closes mouth
  6. Masseter
    • Head - mastication
    • Prime mover of jaw closure
  7. Temporalis
    • Head - mastication
    • Closes jaw
  8. Platysma
    • Neck - anterior, superficial
    • Tenses skin of neck
  9. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Neck - anterior, superficial
    • Flexion of neck forward
    • Rotate head toward shoulder on opposite side
  10. Pectoralis major
    • Thorax/shoulder - anterior
    • Prime mover of arm flexion
    • Adducts, medially rotates arm
  11. Serratus anterior
    • Thorax/shoulder - anterior
    • Protract and hold scapula forward toward chest wall
    • Rotates scapula
  12. Deltoid
    • Thorax/shoulder - anterior
    • Acting as a whole, prime mover of arm abduction
  13. Pectoralis minor
    • Thorax/shoulder - anterior
    • With ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and inferiorly
  14. External intercostals
    • Thorax - anterior
    • Pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage
  15. Internal intercostals
    • Thorax - anterior
    • Draws ribs together to depress rib cage
  16. Diaphragm
    • Thorax - anterior
    • Prime mover of inspiration flattens on contraction
  17. Rectus abdominus
    • Abdominal wall - anterior
    • Flexes and rotates vertebral column
  18. External oblique
    • Abdominal wall - anterior
    • Compress abdominal wall
    • trunk rotation and lateral flexion
  19. Internal oblique
    • Abdominal wall - anterior
    • Compress abdominal wall
    • Trunk rotation and lateral flexion
  20. Transverse abdominis
    • Abdominal wall - anterior
    • Compresses abdominal contents
  21. Trapezius
    • Neck - posterior
    • Raises, rotates and adducts scapula and stabilizes it
  22. Latissimus dorsi
    • Trunk - posterior
    • Prime mover of arm extension
    • Adducts and medially rotates arm
  23. Infraspinatus
    • Shoulder - posterior
    • Lateral rotation of humerus
  24. Supraspinatus
    • Shoulder - posterior
    • Initiates abduction of humerus
  25. Teres minor
    • Torso - posterior
    • Lateral rotation of humerus
  26. Teres major
    • Upper torso - posterior
    • Extends, medially rotates and adducts humerus
  27. Rhomboids major & minor
    • Torso - posterior
    • Stabilizes scapula
  28. Erector spinae
    • Torso - posterior
    • Extend and bend the vertebral column laterally
    • Fibers of the longissimus also extend head
    • Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
  29. Quadratus lumborum
    • Torso - posterier, inferior
    • Each flexes vertebral column laterally
  30. Triceps brachii
    • Arm - humerus
    • #11
    • Powerful forearm extensor
  31. Biceps brachii
    • Arm - humerus
    • #7
    • Flexion (powerful) of elbow and supination of forearm
  32. Brachioradialis
    • Arm - humerus
    • #13
    • Synergist in forearm flexion
  33. Brachialis
    • Arm - humerus
    • #8
    • Under biceps
    • A major flexor of forearm
  34. Palmaris longus
    • Arm - forearm, superficial
    • #18
    • Tenses skin and fascial of palm
  35. Extensor digitorum
    • Arm - forearm, posterior
    • #24
    • Prime mover of finger extension
  36. Iliopsoas
    • Iliacus
    • Psoas major
    • Pelvis
    • Flex trunk on thigh
    • Flex thigh
    • Lateral flexion of vertebral column (psoas)
  37. Sartorius
    • Pelvis
    • Flexes, abductions and laterally rotates thigh
    • Flexes knee
  38. Gracilis
    • Thigh - medial compartment
    • Adducts thigh
    • Flexes and medially rotates leg
  39. Rectus femorus
    • Quadriceps femoris
    • Thigh - anterior compartment
    • Extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
  40. Vastus lateralis
    • Quadriceps femoris
    • Thigh - anterior compartment
    • Extends and stabilizes knee
  41. Vastus medialis
    • Quadriceps femoris
    • Thigh - anterior compartment
    • Extends knee
  42. Vastus intermedius
    • Quadriceps femoris
    • Thigh - anterior compartment
    • Extends knee
  43. Tensor fasciae latae
    • Thigh - anterior compartment
    • Steadies trunk
  44. Gluteus maximus
    • Thigh - origin on pelvis
    • Powerful thigh extensor
  45. Gluteus medius
    • Thigh - origin on pelvis
    • Abducts and medially rotates thigh
  46. Biceps femoris
    • Hamstrings
    • Thigh - posterior
    • Extends thigh
    • Flexes knee
  47. Semitendinosus
    • Hamstring
    • Thigh - posterior
    • Extends thigh
    • Flexes knee
  48. Semimembranosus
    • Hamstring
    • Thigh - posterior, above knee
    • Extends thigh
    • Flexes knee
  49. Fibularis longus (peroneus)
    • Calf - lateral
    • Plantar flexes and everts foot
  50. Tibialis anterior
    • Calf - anterior
    • Prime mover of dorsiflexion
  51. Gastrocnemius
    • Calf - posterior, superficial
    • Triceps surae
    • Plantar flexes foot when knee is extended
  52. Soleus
    • Calf - posterior, superficial
    • Triceps surae
    • Plantar flexion
  53. Achilles/calcaneal tendon
    Posterior aspect (heel)
  54. Synaptic cleft
    Small, fluid-filled gap between neuron and muscle fiber
  55. Junction between axon (nerve fiber) and muscle cell
    Neuromuscular junction
  56. Fibrous Joints
    • No joint cavity
    • Synarthrotic (no movement, most) or amphiarthrotic (slight movement)
    • Connected by fibrous tissue
    • Sutures (connected by short connective tissue fibers) or syndesmoses (connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue)
    • Skull, tibia/fibula - distal end,
  57. Cartilaginous Joints
    • No joint cavity
    • Amphiarthrotic (slight movement)
    • Connected by plate/pad of cartilage
    • Synchondroses (connected by hyaline cartilage) and symphyses (connected by broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage)
    • Sternocostal, intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
  58. Synovial Joints
    • Joint cavity
    • Diarthrotic (freely moveable)
    • Articular capsule (double layered, connective tissue)
    • Synovial membrane (smooth connective tissue) - inner layer of articular capsule
    • Fibrous capsule (dense, irregular connective tissue) - outer layer of articular capsule
    • Articular cartilage - covers bone sides of joints
  59. Types of synovial joints
    • Hinge (temporomandibular, elbow, finger, knee, ankle, toe)
    • Pivot (radioulnar, atlas/axis)
    • Ball & Socket (hip, shoulder)
  60. Muscle heirarchy
    Muscle -> fascicle -> muscle fiber (cell) -> myofibril -> sarcomere
  61. Epimysium
    Wraps muscle
  62. Perimysium
    Wraps fascicle
  63. Endomysium
    Wraps individual muscle fibers (cells)
  64. Agonist
    Muscles primarily responsible for producing a particular movement
  65. Antagonist
    Muscles that oppose or reverse a movement

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