Psych 136

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seanna24
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203093
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Psych 136
Updated:
2013-03-11 17:59:36
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Chapter Five
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Reinforcement, etc.
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  1. Autoshaping
    A procedure in which a stimulus is followed by a reinforcer regardless of what the organism does. (No use of reinforcement).
  2. Backward Chaining
    A chaining procedure in which training begins with the last link in the chain and adds preceding links in reverse order.
  3. Behavior Chain
    A series of related behaviors, the last of which produces reinforcement.
  4. Chaining
    In operant training, the procedure of establishing a behavior chain.
  5. Conditioned Reinforcer
    Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers.
  6. Contrived Reinforcer
    Any reinforcing event that has been arranged by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior.
  7. Discrete Trial Procedure
    An operant training procedure in which performance of a behavior defines the end of a trial.
  8. Dopamine
    One of the brain's major neurotransmitters and one source of a natural "high."  Thought to play a major role in reinforcement.
  9. Drive
    In Hull's theory of reinforcement, a motivational state (such as hunger) caused by a period of deprivation (as of food).
  10. Drive-Reduction Theory
    The theory of reinforcement that attributes a reinforcer's effectiveness to the reduction of a drive.
  11. Epinephrine
    An important neurotransmitter that is thought to be important in reinforcement.  More commonly known as adrenaline.
  12. Escape-Avoidance Learning
    A form of negative reinforcement in which the subject first learns to escape, and then to avoid, and aversive.
  13. Extinction
    In operant training, the procedure of withholding the reinforcers that maintain a behavior.
  14. Extinction Burst
    A sudden increase in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction.
  15. Forward Chaining
    A chaining procedure in which training begins with the first link in the chain and adds subsequent links in order.
  16. Free Operant Procedure
    An operant training procedure in which a behavior may be repeated any number of times.
  17. Generalized Reinforcer
    Any secondary reinforcer that has been paired with several different reinforcers.
  18. Instrumental Learning
    Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger of weaker, depending on its consequences.
  19. Law of Effect
    The statement that behavior is a function of its consequences.  So called because the strength of a behavior depends on its past effects on the environment.  Implicit in the law is the notion that operant learning is an active process because it is usually the behavior of the organism that, directly or indirectly, produces the effect.
  20. Motivating Operation
    Anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer.  Also called establishing operation.
  21. Natural Reinforcer
    Any reinforcing event that follows automatically from a behavior.
  22. Negative Reinforcement
    A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus.  Sometimes called escape training.
  23. Negative Reinforcer
    Any stimulus that, when removed following a behavior, increase or maintains the strength of that behavior.
  24. One-Process Theory
    The view that avoidance and punishment involve only one procedure - operant learning.
  25. Operant Learning
    Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker depending on its consequences.
  26. Positive Reinforcement
    A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus.
  27. Positive Reinforcer
    Any stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, increases or maintains the strength of that behavior.
  28. Premack Principle
    The observation that high-probability behavior reinforces low-probability behavior.
  29. Primary Reinforcer
    Any reinforcer that is not dependent of another reinforcer for its reinforcing properties.
  30. Reinforcement
    The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increase of maintain the strength of that behavior.
  31. Relative Value Theory
  32. Response Deprivation Theory
    The theory of reinforcement that says a behavior is reinforcing to the extent that the organism has been deprived (relative to its baseline frequency) of performing that behavior.  Also called equilibrium theory.
  33. Resurgence
    The reappearance during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior.
  34. Reward Learning
    Changes in behavior due to positive reinforcement.
  35. Reward Pathway
    Formerly reward center, the neural pathways believed to be associated with positive reinforcement.  It is thought to be an area in the septal region, the area separating the two cerebral hemispheres and running from the middle of the brain to the frontal cortex.
  36. Satiation
    A reduction in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer.  Food can be reinforcing when the person is hungry, but it loses some of its effectiveness with each bite.
  37. Secondary Reinforcer
    Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties thought its association with other reinforcers. Also called conditioned reinforcer.
  38. Shaping
    In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior.
  39. Sidman Avoidance Procedure
    An escape avoidance training procedure in which no stimulus regularly precedes the aversive stimulus.
  40. Task Analysis
    The procedure of identifying the component elements of a behavior chain.
  41. Three-Term Contingency
    The essential elements of all operant learning, often represented by the letters ABC, for antecedent, behavior, and consequences.
  42. Two-Process Theory
    The view that avoidance and punishment involve two procedures - Pavlovian and operant learning.

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