A procedure in which a stimulus is followed by a reinforcer regardless of what the organism does. (No use of reinforcement).
A chaining procedure in which training begins with the last link in the chain and adds preceding links in reverse order.
A series of related behaviors, the last of which produces reinforcement.
In operant training, the procedure of establishing a behavior chain.
Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers.
Any reinforcing event that has been arranged by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior.
Discrete Trial Procedure
An operant training procedure in which performance of a behavior defines the end of a trial.
One of the brain's major neurotransmitters and one source of a natural "high." Thought to play a major role in reinforcement.
In Hull's theory of reinforcement, a motivational state (such as hunger) caused by a period of deprivation (as of food).
The theory of reinforcement that attributes a reinforcer's effectiveness to the reduction of a drive.
An important neurotransmitter that is thought to be important in reinforcement. More commonly known as adrenaline.
A form of negative reinforcement in which the subject first learns to escape, and then to avoid, and aversive.
In operant training, the procedure of withholding the reinforcers that maintain a behavior.
A sudden increase in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction.
A chaining procedure in which training begins with the first link in the chain and adds subsequent links in order.
Free Operant Procedure
An operant training procedure in which a behavior may be repeated any number of times.
Any secondary reinforcer that has been paired with several different reinforcers.
Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger of weaker, depending on its consequences.
Law of Effect
The statement that behavior is a function of its consequences. So called because the strength of a behavior depends on its past effects on the environment. Implicit in the law is the notion that operant learning is an active process because it is usually the behavior of the organism that, directly or indirectly, produces the effect.
Anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer. Also called establishing operation.
Any reinforcing event that follows automatically from a behavior.
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus. Sometimes called escape training.
Any stimulus that, when removed following a behavior, increase or maintains the strength of that behavior.
The view that avoidance and punishment involve only one procedure - operant learning.
Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker depending on its consequences.
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus.
Any stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, increases or maintains the strength of that behavior.
The observation that high-probability behavior reinforces low-probability behavior.
Any reinforcer that is not dependent of another reinforcer for its reinforcing properties.
The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increase of maintain the strength of that behavior.
Relative Value Theory
Response Deprivation Theory
The theory of reinforcement that says a behavior is reinforcing to the extent that the organism has been deprived (relative to its baseline frequency) of performing that behavior. Also called equilibrium theory.
The reappearance during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior.
Changes in behavior due to positive reinforcement.
Formerly reward center, the neural pathways believed to be associated with positive reinforcement. It is thought to be an area in the septal region, the area separating the two cerebral hemispheres and running from the middle of the brain to the frontal cortex.
A reduction in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer. Food can be reinforcing when the person is hungry, but it loses some of its effectiveness with each bite.
Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties thought its association with other reinforcers. Also called conditioned reinforcer.
In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior.
Sidman Avoidance Procedure
An escape avoidance training procedure in which no stimulus regularly precedes the aversive stimulus.
The procedure of identifying the component elements of a behavior chain.
The essential elements of all operant learning, often represented by the letters ABC, for antecedent, behavior, and consequences.
The view that avoidance and punishment involve two procedures - Pavlovian and operant learning.