Pathophys Exam 2

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mks
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203115
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Pathophys Exam 2
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2013-02-25 22:55:21
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Pathophysiology Exam
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Genetics and Imunnology for pathophy exam 2
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  1. ALLELE
    THE DIFF FORMS OF THE GENES AT A PARTICULAR LOCUS
  2. CODOMINANCE
    WHEN THE HETERO ZYGOTE IS DISTINGUISHABLE FROM BOTH HOMO ZYGOTE
  3. CONSANGUINITY
    MARRIAGE BETWEEN RELATED INDIVIDUALS
  4. EPIGENETICS
    MODIFICATIONS THAT ALTER THE EXPRESSION OF GENES
  5. EXON
    THE SEQUENCES THAT ARE LEFT TO CODE FOR PROTEINS
  6. EXPRESSIVITY
    THE EXTENT OF VARIATION IN PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR GENOTYPE
  7. GENOMIC IMPRINTING
    EPIGENETIC MODIFICATION, CHARACTERIZED BY METHYLATION
  8. HETEROZYGOUS
    WHEN THE GENES ARE NOT IDENTICAL
  9. HOMOLOGOUS
    OF THE 22 MEMBERS OF THE 23 PAIRS, TWO MEMBERS OF EACH PAIR ARE IDENTICAL
  10. INTRON
    THE EXCISED SEQUENCE OF THE PROTEIN
  11. LOCUS
    A POSITION ALONG THE CHROMOSOME EACH GENE OCCUPIES
  12. MODE OF INHERITANCE
    THE PATTERN IN WHICH GENETIC DISEASES ARE INHERITED THROUGH THE GENERATIONS OF A FAMILY
  13. PENETRANCE
    THE PERCENTAGE OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A SPECIFIC GENOTYPE WHO ALSO EXHIBITS THE EXPECTED PHENOTYPE
  14. PHENOTYPE
    THE OUTWARD APPEARANCE OF AN INDIVIDUAL, RESULT OF GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT
  15. PROBAND
    THE ONE INDIVIDUAL IN THE FAMILY WHICH BEGINS THE PEDIGREE
  16. PROMOTER SITE
    A SEQUENCE OF DNA THAT SPECIFIES THE BEGINNING OF A GENE
  17. RECOMBINATION
    THE PROCESS OF FORMING SUCH NEW ARRANGEMENTS OF ALLELES
  18. SEX-INFLUENCED TRAIT
    ONE THAT OCCURS MUCH MORE OFTEN IN ONE SEX THAN IN THE OTHER
  19. SEX-LIMITED TRAIT
    ONE THAT CAN OCCUR IN ONLY ONE OF THE SEXES
  20. SILENT SUBSTITUTION
    BASE PAIR SUBSTITUTION WHERE AMINO ACID DOES NOT CHANGE
  21. SOMATIC CELL
    • ALL CELLS OTHER THAN GAMETES.
    • EACH CELL HAS 46 CHROMOSOMES IN NUCLEUS
  22. TRANSCRIPTION
    THE PROCESS BY WHICH RNA IS SYNTHESIZED BY DNA TEMPLATE=FORMS mRNA
  23. TRANSLATION
    THE PROCESS BY WHICH RNA DIRECTS THE SYNTHESIS OF A POLYPEPTIDE. mRNA INTERACTS WITH tRNA TO SPECIFY THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS
  24. TRANSLOCATION
    THE INTERCHANGING OF GENETIC MATERIAL BETWEEN NONHOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
  25. TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENE
    THE NORMAL FUNCTION OF ITS PROTEIN PRODUCT IS TO REGULATE THE CELL CYCLE SO THAT CELLS DO NOT GROW UNCONTROLLABLY
  26. COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR
    • FOUND ON MANY CELLS OF THE INNATE AND ACQUIRED IMMUNE RESPONSES
    • THEY RECOGNIZE SEVERAL FRAGMENTS PRODUCED THROUGH ACTIVATION OF THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM
  27. CONTRACTURE
    A DEFORMITY FROM EXCESSIVE WOUND CONTRACTION
  28. ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN
    FEVER CAUSING CYTOKINE (MADE WITHIN BODY..NOT PATHOGEN PRODUCED)
  29. EPITHILIALIZATION
    • SEALING
    • PROCESS BY WHICH EPITHELIAL CELLS GROW INTO THE WOUND FROM SURROUNDING HEALTHY TISSUE
  30. GRANULOMA
    BODIES ATTEMPT TO WALL OFF AND ISOLATE THE INFECTED AREA
  31. HISTAMINE
    A VASOACTIVE AMINE THAT CAUSES TEMPORARY RAPID CONSTRUCTION OF THE LARGE VESSEL WALLS AND DILATION OF THE POSTCAPILLARY VENULES, BOTH OF WHICH RESULT IN INCREASED BLOOD FLOW INTO THE MICROCIRCULATION
  32. INNATE IMMUNITY
    • NATIVE OR NATURAL IMMUNITY
    • RAPID, NONSPECIFIC AND SHORTLIVED
  33. KININ SYSTEM
    • THE THIRD PLASMA PROTEIN SYSTEM WHICH AUGMENTS INFLAMMATION IN SEVERAL WAYS
    • PRIMARY KININ PRODUCED IS BRADYKININ (DILATES BLOOD VESSELS)
  34. NATIVE IMMUNITY
    INNATE, OR NATURAL IMMUNITY
  35. NATURAL KILLER CELLS (NK CELLS)
    • RECOGNITION AND ELIMINATION OF CELLS INFECTED WITH VIRUSES AND CANCER CELLS, AND OTHER ABNORMAL HOSTS
    • MORE EFFECTIVE WHEN ENCOUNTERS IN CIRCULATORY VS WITHIN TISSUE
  36. OPSONIN
    MOLECULES THAT TAG MICRO ORGANISMS FOR DESTRUCTION BY CELLS OF THE INFLAMMATORY SYSTEM (MOSTLY NEUTROPHILS AND MACROPHAGES)
  37. PAMP OR PATHOGEN ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERNS
    MOLECULAR "PATTERNS" ON INFECTIOUS AGENTS OR THEIR PRODUCTS
  38. PRR OR PATTERN RECOGNITION RECEPTORS
    RECOGNIZE MOLECULAR "PATTERNS" ON INFECTIOUS AGENTS OR THEIR PRODUCTS (PAMP) OR PRODUCTS OF CELLULAR DAMAGE OF NECROSIS OR APOPTOSIS
  39. PMN OR POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL
    • NEUTROPHILS
    • MEMBERS OF THE GRANULOCYTIC SERIES, NAMED FOR ITS CHARACTERITIC STAINING PATTERN OF ITS GRANULES AND MULTILOBED NUCLEUS
    • PREDOMINANT PHAGOCYTES
  40. SEROUS
    WATERY EXUDE WITH FEW PLASMA PROTEINS OR LEUKOCYTES, IN EARLY OR MILD INFLAMMATION
  41. TLR
    • TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS
    • EXPRESSED ON THE SURFACE OF MANY CELLS THAT HAVE DIRECT AND EARLY CONTACT WITH POTENTIAL PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS
    • THEY RECOGNIZE LARGE VARIETY OF PAMPS
    • THEY HELP INCREASE LOCAL RESISTANCE TO PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS
    • THEY INCREASE RESPONSE OF LYMPHOCYTES TO FOREIGN ANTIGENS ON PATHOGENS
  42. TGF BETA
    • TRANSOFRMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA
    • STIMULATES FIBROBLASTS ENTERING THE LESION TO SYNTHESIZE AND SECRETE THE COLLAGEN PRECURSOR PROCOLLAGEN
  43. TNF ALPHA
    • TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA
    • PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE
    • SECRETED BY MACROPHAGES IN RESPONSE TO RECOGNITION OF PAMPS BY TLR'S.
  44. ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
    • ACTIVE IMMUNITY
    • PRODUCED BY INDIVIDUAL AFTER EITHER NATURAL EXPOSURE TO ANTIGEN OR AFTER IMMUNIZATION
  45. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
    • ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
    • THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE IN HUMAN BODY
    • SLOWER ACTING, SPECIFIC AND VERY LONG LIVED
  46. ANTIBODY TITER
    THE LEVEL OF CIRCULATING ANTIBODIES
  47. ANTIGEN
    A MOLECULE THAT CAN REACT WITH ANTIBODIES OR ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ON B AND T CELLS
  48. ANTIGEN-BINDING FRAGMENT (FAB)
    TWO IDENTICAL FRAGMENTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN(ANTIBODY) WHICH BINDS TO ANTIGEN
  49. ANTIGEN PRESENTATION
    • PRIMARY ROLE OF MHC MOLECULES
    • FOR EFFECTIVE IR, MOST ANTIGENS MUST BE PROCESSED WITHINT CELLS AND EXPRESSED ON THE SURFACE OF THOSE CELLS IN THIS VERY SPECIFIC MANNER
  50. ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS (APC)
    HIGHLY SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT PROCESS AND PRESENT ANTIGENS
  51. B CELL OR B LYMPHOCYTE
    • THEY RECOGNIZE ALMOST ANY FOREIGN ANTIGEN FOUND IN THE ENVIRONMENT
    • BONE MARROW
  52. B CELL RECEPTOR (BCR)
    ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ON THE SURFACE OF B LYMPHOCYTES (B CELLS)
  53. CD
    • CLUSTER OF DIFFERENTIATION
    • ORIGINALLY USED TO DESCRIBE PROTEINS FOUND ON THE SURFACE OF LYMPHOCYTES
    • ACCEPTED FORMAT LABELING A VERY LARGE FAMILY OF PROTEINS FOUND ON THE SURFACE OF MANY CELLS
  54. CENTRAL TOLERANCE
    LYMPHOCYTES WITH RECEPTORS AGAINST SELF ANTIGENS HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED
  55. CLASS SWITCH
    B CELLS HAVE THE OPTION OF CHANGING THE CLASS OF ANTIBODY TO A SECRETED FORM IGA, IGG, IGE
  56. CLONAL SELECTION
    ANTIGENS SELECTS THOSE LYMPHOCYTES WITH COMPATIBLE RECEPTORS, EXPANDS THEIR POPULATION, AND CAUSES DIFFERENTIATION INTO ANTIBODY-SECRETING PLASMA CELLS OR MATURE T CELLS.
  57. COMPLEMENTARY-DETERMINING REGION (CDR)
    • HYPERVARIABLE REGIONS
    • REGION IN THE MOECULAR STRUCTURE OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN
    • REGIONS VARIABILITY IN AMINO ACID SEQUENCE IS LOCALIZED INTO 3 AREAS OF VARIABLE REGIONS
  58. CRYSTALLINE FRAGMENT (Fc)
    THE THIRD FRAGMENT CRYSTALLIZED WHEN SEPARATED FROM THE Fab PORTIONS
  59. EPITOPE
    • THE PRECISE PORTION OF THE ANITGEN THAT IS CONFIGURED FOR RECOGNITION AND BINDING
    • ALSO CALLED ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT
  60. HAPTEN
    ANTIGENS TOO SMALL TO BE IMMUNOGENS BY THEMSELVES BUT BECOME IMMUNOGENIC IN COMBINATION WITH LARGER MOLECULES THAT FUNCATION AS CARRIERS FOR HAPTENS
  61. HELPER T CELLS (Th cells)
    SUB POPULATION OF T CELLS THAT FACILITATE IMMUNE RESPONSES..THEY INTERACT WITH APC'S
  62. HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (HLA)
    • ALSO KNOWN AS HUMAN MHC MOLECULES
    • AND USED TO NAME DIFFERENT MHC GENETIC LOCI (TRANSPLANTATION)
  63. MHC
    • MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX
    • SET OF RECOGNITION MOLECULES
    • PRIMARY ROLE IS ANTIGEN PRESENTATION
    • GLYCOPORTEINS FOUND ON THE SURFACE OF ALL HUMAN BLOOD CELLS EXCEPT RED BLOOD CELLS
    • TWO GENERAL CLASSES: 1 AND 2
  64. MEMORY CELL (MEMORY T CELL)
    • LONG LIVED, CAPABLE OF REMEMBERING THE ANTIGEN AND RESPONDING MORE RAPIDLY AND EFFICIENTLY ON SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURE TO THE SAME ANTIGEN
    • ON RE EXPOSURE THEY REPIDLY BECOME NEW PLASMA CELLS OR EFFECTOR T CELLS.
  65. NEUTRALIZATION
    WHEN ANTIBODY INACTIVATE OR BLOCK THE BINDING OF AN ANTIGEN TO A RECEPTOR
  66. OPSONIN
    ANTIBODY AND C3b MAKE PATHOGEN MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO PHAGOCYTOSIS THROUGH BINDING TO Fc or C3b RECEPTORS ON THE PHAGOCYTES SURFACE
  67. OPSONIZATION
    NECESSARY FOR EFFICIENT BACTERIAL CLEARANCE BECAUSE MANY BACTERIA HAVE AN OUTER CAPSULE THAT DETERS RECOGNITION BY PHAGOCYTES UNLESS IT IS COATED WITH AN ANTIBODY OR COMPLEMENT PROTEIN
  68. PLASMA CELL
    AN ACTIVATED OR DIFFERNTIATED B CELL (CLONAL SELECTION)
  69. PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE
    PART OF THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
  70. SUPERANTIGEN (SAG)
    • THEY CAN ACTIVATE A LARGE POPULATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES REGARDLESS OF ANTIGEN SPECIFICITY
    • INDUCE EXCESSIVE PRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES-RESULT IN SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION POTENTIALLY SHOCK.
    • EX BACTERIAL TOXINS OF STAPH A. STREP. P.

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