PSSA Review

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PSSA Review
2013-02-24 22:26:39
PSSA Review

PSSA Review
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  1. Alliteration
    the repeating of the beginning sounds of words in a sentence. Ex: sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy.
  2. Antonym
    a word that means the opposite of another word.
  3. Author’s Purpose
    the author’s reason for writing the selection. Always ask yourself “is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or to persuade?”
  4. Autobiography
    a storyof a person’s life written by the person
  5. Biography
    a story of a person’s life written by another person
  6. Characterization
    the method an author uses to tell us information about the characters
  7. Climax
    the moment when the action of the story comes to its highest point
  8. Conclusion
    the endof the passage/story
  9. Conflict
    the struggle between different  forces in astory/passage
  10. Context clues
    information within the story/passage that helps you figure out the meanings of challenging words
  11. Dialogue
    the actual words/conversation that the character says to another character.“   “
  12. Evaluate
    to examineor to judge; example would be to decide if something is good or bad
  13. Expository text
    text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic
  14. Fable
    a narrative intended to teach a moral or a lesson
  15. Falling action
    the partof the story following the climax where there is a sharp decline of drama
  16. Fiction
    any story that is imaginary or not real
  17. Figurative language
    language that cannot be taken literally
  18. Flashback
    when the author disrupts the plot of the story to re-create or remember an earlier time
  19. Foreshadowing
    when the author provides you with clues about events that will happen later in thestory
  20. Generalization
    when you make assumptions about different events and/or characters
  21. Genre
    categories of literature such as biography, mystery, historical, sports, and romance
  22. Graphic organizer
    an organizational picture such as a Venn diagram or writing web that helps you identify important details of the story
  23. Homophone
    two or more words that sound the same but have different meanings example:  pair/pear
  24. Hyperbole
    an extreme exaggeration for strong effect example:I’m so hungry I could eat a horse
  25. Imagery
    • words that help you imagine each of the senses
    • *you can really see/hear/feel what’s going on
  26. Inference
    reading between the lines. taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption
  27. Irony
    a difference between what is expected and what actually happens
  28. Metaphor
    a comparison between 2 things without using like and as

    ex: I was a tornado when I got ready for school today.
  29. Mood
    the overall feeling created by the author’s words

    happy, sad, excited, eerie
  30. Narrator
    the speaker of the story
  31. Nonfiction
    writing that is true and the purpose is to inform
  32. Onomatopoeia
    sound words

    • examples: buzz, crash, crunch, boom, clang
  33. Plot
    the events that occur in the story beginning with the setting and end with the resolution
  34. Point of View
    perspective from which the story is being told
  35. 1st Person Point of View
    A character in the story is telling the story. uses words such as me, mine, we, I
  36. 3rd Person Point of View
    The story is being told from the author’s/narrator’s point of view useswords such as  they, them, he, she
  37. Prediction
    making an educated guess about what will happen next
  38. Prefix
    letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning ex:start/restart, pack/unpack
  39. Protagonist
    the “good guy” in the story
  40. Personification
    giving objects/animals human-like qualities

    ex: The flames danced through the  dry forest.
  41. Resolution
    occurs at the end of the story and includes the story’s action after the climax
  42. Sequential order
    events in the correct order/step by step
  43. Setting
    the environment, time, and place that the story occurs
  44. Simile
    a comparison between two objects using like or as ex.  tough as nails
  45. Suffix
    letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaningex: run/running, pretty/prettiest
  46. Summary
    a shortened explanation of the story/passage with the most important events and main ideas
  47. Supporting details
    details that support the main idea of a story/passage
  48. Symbol
    an image, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its actual meaning
  49. Synonym
    a word that means the same as another word
  50. Theme
    the message of the story/passage that the author is trying to communicate to you
  51. Tone
    the clues of the story that suggest the author’s attitude toward the story/passage
  52. Visualization
    the ability to imagine or see what you are reading
  53. Voice
    the author’s style and the quality that makes his/her writing unique
  54. Compare and Contrast
    compare means to show similarities (what is the same), contrast means to show the differences (what is different)
  55. Character Conflict
    good vs.evil, a family feud, trouble with a bully
  56. Fact vs. Opinion
    a fact can be proven as true, an opinion is how someone feels about something
  57. Root word
    a word which prefixes and/or suffixes are added to
  58. Noun
    person, place, thing, or idea

    common: teacher, dog, school 

    proper:  Mrs. Smith, Max, Northern Potter Children’s School
  59. Verbs
    action words run, talk, skip, feel, stomp
  60. Pronouns
    take the place of nouns 

    he, she,they, I, we, me
  61. Adverbs
    describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs

    often end in –ly 

    happily, quickly, often
  62. Adjective
    describe nouns and pronouns bright, many, huge, yellow, soft