Sociology 120

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Sociology 120
2013-02-24 23:04:52

Chapter 7 Vocab
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  1. a social position that we voluntarily attain, to a considerable degree, as the result of our own efforts
    Achieved status
  2. a social position that is assigned to us from birth or that we assume later in life, regardless of our wishes or abilities
    Ascribed status
  3. a hierarchical administrative system with formal rules and procedures used to manage organizations
  4. an approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of social life as a theater
  5. a form of uncritical thinking in which people reinforce a consensus rather than ask serious questions or thoroughly analyze the issue at hand
  6. the idea that social contact occurs at a higher rate between people who are similar than it does between people who are different
  7. a social group with which a person identifies and toward which he or she feels positively; members have a collective sense of "us"
  8. a common understanding between people about knowledge, reality, or an experience
  9. the eventual and inevitable consolidation of power at the top of bureaucratic organizations
    iron law of oligarchy
  10. a social position that is overwhelmingly significant, powerfully influences a person's social experience, and typically overshadows all the other social positions that person may occupy
    Master status
  11. factors that exist outside the organization but that potentially affect its operation
    organizational environment
  12. secondary groups that have a degree of formal structure and are formed to accomplish particular tasks
  13. a social group toward which a person feels negativity, considering its members to be inferiors  or "them"
  14. people who have regular contract, enduring relationships, and a significant emotional attachment to each other
    primary groups
  15. the groups against which we choose to measure ourselves
    reference groups
  16. the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with different roles clash
    role conflict
  17. the problem that occurs hen the expectations associated with a single role compete with each other
    role strain
  18. the sets of expected behaviors that are associate with particular statuses
  19. the process of deskilling ordinary workers and increasing workplace efficiency through calculated study
    scientific management
  20. people who interact in a relatively impersonal way, usually to carry out some specific task
    secondary groups
  21. collections of people who interact regularly with one another and who are aware of their status as a group
    social groups
  22. the collection of social ties that connect people to each other
    social networks
  23. a position in a social system that can be occupied by an individual
  24. a status that people can hold in common
    status category
  25. a ranking of social positions according to their perceived prestige or honor
    status hierarchy
  26. the collection of statuses and individual holds
    status set
  27. exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation
  28. the idea the if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
    Thomas theorem