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Early Formative Period
c. 1200-900/800 B.C.
Middle Formative Period
c. 900-600 B.C.
Middle to Late Formative Period
Late Formative Period
300 B.C. - AD 1
Terminal Formative Period
The population of Teotihuacán migrated primarily from _______.
The first evidence of a written calendar was found at ________.
San Jose Magote
rectilinear fields with ditches used to irrigate fields in Valley of Mexico
slash and burn agriculture
- 1500 B.C.
- quickly clears large areas of farmland
- indicated by unnaturally occurring layers of charcoal
Middle Formative Mayan Sites (Lowlands)
- El Mirador
- San Bantulo
Middle Formative Mayan Sites (Belize)
- Altar de Sacrifícios
- Piedras Negras
Middle Formative Mayan Sites (Northern/Central Petén)
Urban centers built on hilltops are characteristic of the ___________.
3 Main Trends of the Terminal Formative
- increased investment in defensive architecture, walls to demarcate different regions
- increased urbanization
- massive monumental building structures
new trade items in Middle Formative
features of palaces in Late Formative
- luxury items
- built on large platforms
- rectilinear structure with central sunken patio
- grave located in backroom
- connection of roads from 2 different Mayan cities
- evidence of alliance or conquest
- Valley of Oaxaca
- evidence of glyphs publicly demarcating territory/names of conquered cities
- possibly elite propaganda (not entirely true)
trends in the Middle to Late Formative
- increased reginalization
- continuation of site-size hierarchy
- increased population density
Why are caves in the Basin of Mexico significant?
- seen as source of life force, storms, water
- used to establish leadership (rulers were believed to come from the cave)
- become manifestation of the gods
Zapotec peoples appear during the __________.
Early I Phase (Valley of Oaxaca)
A major population shift sees a large-scale migration from San Jose Magote to __________.
Monte Albán is established around __________.
height of Mayan power
earliest evidence of maize domestication
- Mayan constructions during Late Formative
- evidence for deciphering glyphs
- record of Mayan dynasties
- Late Formative site
- land sculpting, underground water control