Transport in Plants

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  1. a.      Plants don’t have a __; food is transported through the plant’s __
    • circulatory system
    • vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
  2. Three types of Transport
    •                                                               i.      Gas exchange (at leaf)
    •                                                             ii.      Transpiration: One that occurs at level of root, moving dissolved materials in and up through xylem
    •                                                           iii.      Translocation: movement of sugars or organic material that was made by plant that occurs through phloem
  3. a.      Occurs at level of __through __
    b.      Explain it in terms of guard cells 
    • leaf
    • stomata
    • When the guard cells are turgid, the stoma is open, allowing for material to leave the plant (water, carbon  dioxide, oxygen)causing material and gases to leave/ enter plant
  4. What makes the guard cells turgd?
    •                                                               i.      What opens the guard cells is an ATP proton pump
    •                                                             ii.      Uses energy and the proton pump
    •                                                           iii.      ACTIVE TRANSPORT OF POTASSIUM IONS INTO THE CELLS
    •                                                           iv.      When potassium enters the cells, water osmotically follows due to concentraition
    • 1.      under certain conditions, potassium ions are transported into guard cells
    • 2.      the cell BLOWS UP= TURGIDà space opens
  5. What closes stoma?
                                                                  i.      water and potassium leave
  6. What controls opening?
    •                                                               i.      Circadian rhythm
    • 1.      Biological clock that causes them to become turgid and collapse
    • 2.      Light
    • 3.      Low CO
  7. What controls closing?
    • a.      STRESS
    •                                                               i.      If plant in threat of dehydration, the stoma will not open up
    •                                                             ii.      If there is a lot of carbon dioxide in the leaf, the stoma will stay closed
    •                                                           iii.      Abscisic acid
    • 1.      Released in times of stress of plant, causing it to keep stomata closed
  8. Good Conditions for the plant
    •                                                               i.      Enough water vapor
    •                                                             ii.      Light
    •                                                           iii.      Circadian rhythm
    •                                                           iv.      Low CO2
  9. Transpiration
    • a.      Movement of water and minerals from the soil to the leaf
    • a.      Once into vascular stele, it then can move up the xylem and the xylem forms a continuous tube network from the root all the way up to the leaf
    •  a.      Only up
  10. What is associated with transpiratoin?
    • a.      Specialized cells in xylem that are responsible for movement of water and dissolved minerals
    •                                                               i.      Tracheids and vessel elements
    • 1.      Dead at maturity; there’s nothing in them (no cell organelles, etc.)
  11. What causes movement in transpiration?
    •                                                               i.      Three pressures: transpirational pull, root pressure, and cohesion/ adhesion properties of water
    •                                                             ii.      Transpirational pull
    •                                                           iii.      Root pressure
    • Cohesion/
    • Adhesion
  12. Explain transpirational pull in terms of transpiration
    • 1.      If stoma are opened at top at the leaves and it’s losing water vapor, its going to force the plant to want more water
    • 2.      Very weak; generally plays no role in large trees or bushes, but it does cause a pull at the roots because it wants to make more water in, creating a pressure that wants to get water up
    • 3.      Due to loss of water vapor at the top of the plant (at the stoma of the leaves)
  13. Root Pressure in terms of Transpiration
    • 1.      Results from the inward active transport of solutes from the soil by root cells
    • 2.      Due to movement of solutes into the root and water osmotically follows
    • 3.      As more water comes in, it’ll push up those vessels and tracheids
    • 4.      The greater the solute concentration, the more is absorbed, the more water comes in and the more pressure is created
    • 5.      Force that is greater than transpirational pull, but generally weak
    • 6.      Cause push through cortex, up stele and into plants
  14. Cohesion and Adhesions in terms of transpiration
    • 1.      Water molecules stick together (forming a continuous sheet)= COHESIVE NATURE OF WATER
    • 2.      Water also adheres to the lining of tissues
    • a.      Once it enters the stele, it forms a continuous flow of molecules up that xylem because it’s cohesive and adhesive
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Adheres to xylem and it’s being pushed up as a continuous column of water
    • 1.      NOT BITS AND PIECES
    • 2.      In that water are the dissolved minerals
  15. Translocation
    • a.      Movement of organic material made by the plant through the plant that ocfurs in phloem
    • b.      It is movement in all different directions
    •                                                               i.      In phloem, things can move up, down, sides, 
  16. Characteristics of translocation
    • a.      in terms of movement through phloem, there are the source and sink
    •                                                               i.      source: where the organic material was loaded into phloem
    • 1.      it can be the root, stem, or leaf
    •                                                             ii.      sink: where it’s unloaded
    • 1.      takes it out of the phloem at the sink; maybe stored in the stem and now the leaf wants it (do you see? It’s not stationary)
  17. Unlike xylem, what are phloem?
    • a.      phloem cells are alive at maturity
    •                                                               i.      cells that are unique cells are sieve cells/ tube elements and companion/ albuminous cells
    • 1.      have to be alive in order for translocation to occur
  18. What does translocation involve?
    • a.      involves the active transport of the organic material into the companion cells into the sieve cell  
    •                                                               i.      in the sink, it’s active transport out
    • 1.      active transport loads and unloads sugars into and out of phloem 
  19. What is in the cortex of the root?
    • endodermis-Casparian strip 
    • stele (central part of the root containing the vascular tissue)
  20. Nutrients are in __.
    Absorption of minerals is based on what?
    soil water

    • Absorption of minerals independent of rates of water absorption.
    • Each mineral moves into the root at a rate determined by:
    •      1. its concentration
    •      2. ease it can passively penetrate cell membranes or go through ion channels
    •         3. available carriers
  21. What does the xylem tissue contain?
    • tracheids and vessel elements
    • living parenchyma
    • fibers
  22. What do phloem cells contain?
    • sieve cells/ sieve tube members
    • companion cells/ albuminous cells
Card Set:
Transport in Plants
2013-02-25 16:24:20
BIO 220 Test Two

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