US Government Chapter 9

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Author:
gskinner
ID:
203249
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US Government Chapter 9
Updated:
2013-02-25 11:12:29
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Chapter 9 Key Terms
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  1. General Election
    The parties’ respective nominees run against each other, and voters decide who should hold office, as the person with the most vote wins.
  2. Caucuses
    meetings of party members held to select delegates to national convention
  3. Open Primary
    any registered voter can vote in any party’s primary, as can independent voters not registered with a party
  4. Closed Primary
    voting in a party’s primary is limited to members of that party
  5. Super Tuesday
    the day in early March on which the most presidential primary elections took place, many of them in southern states.
  6. Runoff elections
    If no candidate receives more than 50 percent of the vote, several of the top vote-getters (usually the top two) run in another, subsequent election.
  7. Instant runoff election
    a computerized voting machine simulates the elimination of last-place vote getters. In an instant runoff election voters rank the candidates in order of preference. If any candidate gets more than 50% of the first place vote then they win
  8. referendum
    is an election in which voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by the state legislature.
  9. Initiative
    sometimes called an initiative petition, is a citizen-sponsored proposal that can result in new or amended legislation or a state constitutional amendment. Usually requires 10% of the number of voters in the previous election to sign a petition
  10. Proposition
    proposed measure
  11. Recall
    allows voters to cut an officeholder’s term or office short.
  12. Australian ballot
    a secret ballot prepared by government officials in an unbiased fashion, without corruption or regard to individual preferences.
  13. Chad
    a ready made preforation
  14. Party-column ballot
    organizes the candidates by party, so that all of a given party’s candidates for every office are arranged in one column.
  15. Coattail effect
    the phenomenon whereby down-ballot candidates benefit from the popularity of a top-of-ticket nominee.
  16. Office-block ballot
    arrange all candidates for a particular office under the name of that office.
  17. Absentee voting
    voters cast their ballots in advance by mail when disability, illness, school, work, service in the armed forces, or travel prevents them from cast a ballot in their voting precinct.
  18. Campaign consultants
    paid professionals who specialize in the overall management of political campaigns or an aspect of campaigns, such as fundraising or advertising.
  19. Campaign manager
    a professional whose duties comprise a variety of strategic and managerial tasks
  20. Fund-raising consultant
    works with the candidate to identify likely contributors and arranges fund-raising events and meetings with donors
  21. Campaign strategy
    the blueprint for the campaign, which includes a  budget and fund-raising plan, an advertising strategy, and staffing objectives.
  22. Media Consultant
    brings the campaign message to voters by creating handouts and brochures, as well as newspapers, radio, and television promotions.
  23. Independent expenditures
    are outlays, typically for advertising for or against a candidate, that are uncoordinated with a candidate’s campaign.
  24. 527
    is a tax-exempt group that raises money for political activities, much like those allowed under the soft money loophole.
  25. Turnout rate
    the proportion of eligible voters who actually vote
  26. prospective voting
    voters evaluate candidates on the basis of their positions on issues and then cast ballots for those who best represent their views
  27. Retrospective voting
    voter evaluates an incumbent candidate on the basis of whether the incumbent’s past decisions and actions are satisfactory to the voter.
  28. Salient
    must resonate with them and reflect something they care deeply about and issue they are willing to base their vote on.
  29. Incumbency
    the situation of already holding an office or official position
  30. Voter fatigue
    the condition in which voters simply grow tired of all candidates by the time election day arrives
  31. rational abstention thesis
    this theory states that some individuals decide that the “costs” of voting - in terms of time, energy, and inconvenience required to register to vote, to become informed about candidates and elections, and actually to vote - are not worth the effort when compared to the expected “benefits” or what the voters could derive from voting

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