digestive system

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Author:
hannahshort
ID:
203267
Filename:
digestive system
Updated:
2013-02-25 21:49:18
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digestive
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Description:
test 1
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  1. 5 functions of digestive system
    • ingestion
    • grinding/mastication
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • elimination
  2. parts of digestive system
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • accessory glands
    •   a)salivary glands
    •   b)liver
    •   c)pancreas
  3. digestive tract is one long continuous tube extending from mouth to anus, made of 4 layers within > outward
    mucosa > sub-mucosa > muscle layer > serosa
  4. mouth is used for
    • grinding
    • prehensile mechanism
    • defensive/offensive weapon

    (consists of teeth, tongue, lips, cheeks, muscle)
  5. baby teeth
    deciduous teeth
  6. adult teeth
    permanent teeth
  7. other names for canine teeth
    • eye teeth
    • bridle teeth
    • tusk
    • tushes
  8. hypsodont
    long crown
  9. taste sensors

    *= contain tastebuds
    • filiform (hairlike)
    • *fungiform (toadstool)
    • *foliate (leaves)
    • *vallate or circumvallate (large, circular projections surrounded by a deep groove)
  10. hard palate
    forms roof of the mouth
  11. Lampers
    condition in horses causing inflammation of the mucosa of hard palate (abscess) 
  12. soft palate
    lies directly behind hard palate. separates the mouth from pharynx

    (elongated soft palate causes snoring)
  13. tonsils
    • fight infection
    • are simply lymphoid tissue
  14. palatine tonsils
    man&dog

    (dogs lack membrane covering tonsils-prone to tonsillitis)
  15. lingual tonsils
    located at base of tongue

    (horse, cow, pig)
  16. pharyngeal tonsils
    enlargement of these: adenoids
  17. cardiac glands
    • closest to cardia
    • produce mucus to provide moisture
  18. pyloric glands
    • pylorus region
    • produce mucus and gastrin
  19. gastrin
    hormone that stimulates release of HCL and formulation of pepsin, aids in release of pancreatic enzymes and gall bladder contraction
  20. fundic glands
    • located through out remainder of stomach
    • contain parietal cells and chief cells
  21. parietal cells
    produce HCL
  22. chief cells
    produce pepsinogen and rennin. pepsinogen split by HCL to form pepsin 
  23. pepsin
    main component of digestive gastric juices
  24. parts of fore stomach
    • rumen
    • reticulum
    • omasum
  25. true stomach
    abomasum

    (where digestion actually begins)
  26. reticulum
    • "honeycomb"
    • most cranial
  27. another name for Hardware Disease
    Traumatic Reticular Pericarditis
  28. rumen
    • largest portion
    • fermenting vat 
    • cudding&bloat
  29. another name for bloat
    Rumenal Tympany
  30. omasum
    • "book" stomach
    • grinds roughage before it enters abomasum
  31. most nutrient absorption occurs here
    small intestine
  32. 3 parts of small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum 
  33. duodenum
    • largest
    • ducts from pancreas and liver enter here to excrete enzymes to aid in digestion
  34. colic
    • digestive upset
    • most times in large intestine

    • (from change in feed, enterolith..)
    • treatment: pass gastric tube, mineral oil, or surgery
  35. equine large intestine is the most complex of any of domestic animalsc
    • cecum
    • right ventral colon
    • sternal fixture
    • left ventral colon
    • pelvic flexure
    • left dorsal colon
    • diaphragmatic flexure
    • right dorsal colon
    • transverse colon
    • small colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  36. crypts of lieberkuhn
    • located between vili.
    • secrete mucus, in small intestine secrete the enzyme Enterokinsae, which activates pancreatic secretion of trysinogen and small amount of the enzyme amylase which assists in starch breakdown
  37. brunner's glands
    • located in duodenum
    • secrete mucus for moisture
  38. peyer's patches
    lymph nodules located in ileum
  39. auerbach's plexus
    nerve supply for intestinal tract
  40. 3 pairs of salivary glands
    • parotid
    • mandibular
    • submandibular 
  41. normal fasting blood glucose
    80-120
  42. hypoglycemic
    60
  43. pancreas
    • lobulated organ located between the liver, kidneys, and stomach
    • both endocrine&exocrine
    • endocrine portion more extensive-islets of langerhans
  44. endocrine
    hormones
  45. exocrine
    enzymes
  46. Islets of Langerhans
    contains alpha, beta, and delta cells
  47. alpha cells
    secrete glucagons which elevate blood sugar
  48. beta cells
    insulin affects metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats
  49. delta cells
    • somatostatin
    • inhibit secretion of glucagons and insulin and may control metabolic processes
  50. pancreatic amylase
    breakdown starches
  51. pancreatic lipase
    breakdown fats
  52. trypsinogen
    breakdown proteins
  53. liver
    *giant filtration device

    waste out, storage for blood and fat, filters food and meds
  54. dog&cat teeth
    • deciduous: 3-4 wks
    • permanent: 4-6 months
  55. horse teeth
    • deciduous: 8 days, 8 wks, 8 months
    • permanent: 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 yrs
  56. cow teeth
    • deciduous: 8 days
    • permanent: 18 months-4 yrs
  57. herbivores
    • do not have upper incisors, have flat dental pad
    • flat teeth that continually grow

    (horse, cow)
  58. carnivores
    sharp points for shearing/ tearing

    (cats)
  59. omnivores
    not as sharp/pointy and substantial 

    (dog)
  60. prefer food according to...
    • dogs&cats-smell
    • horse-texture
    • birds-color
  61. dogs prone to tonsillitis bc
    lack membrane covering tonsils 
  62. main digestive agent
    pepsin (sight&smell can produce, not just food into stomach)
  63. overproduction of pepsin causes
    upset stomach
  64. rennin
    • only breaks down milk
    • usually short production in animals bc they stop drinking milk
  65. cudding
    eat, swallow, regurgitate, repeat process
  66. Rumenal Tympany
    • a lot of gas production in rumen bc a lot of bacteria
    • paralumbar fossa distends out
    • cow becomes progressively more uncomfortable..pressure will start to push on diaphragm
    • signs-rub against tree, barn, etc

    • need to decompress (get gas out)
    • nasogastric tube: nose --> esophagus
  67. test to see if digesting protein
    Trypsinogen Digestion Test
  68. dental formula of dog
    2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3) 42
  69. dental formula of cattle
    2(I 0/3 C 0/0 P3/3 M 3/3) 30
  70. dental formula of horse
    2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P3-4/3 M 3/3) 40 or 42
  71. dental formula of cat
    2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1) 30

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