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Schwartz's Value Theory (10)
- -values are motivational b/c they "represent broad goals that apply across contexts and time.
- -Power, Achievement, Herdonism, Stimulation, Self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, security
social status and prestige, control or dominance over ppl and resources (social power, authority, wealth)
Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards (success, capable, ambitious)
Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself (pleasure, enjoying life)
Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life
Independent thought and action choosing, creating, exploring (creativity, freedom, curious, set own goals)
understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection of the welfare of all ppl and of nature (broad-minded, wisdom, equality, world at peace, world of beauty, unity)
Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of ppl with whom one is in frequent personal contact (helpful, honest, forgiving, loyal, responsible)
Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that tradition culture or religion provides the self (humble, accepting my portion of life, devout)
Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms (politeness, obedient, self discipline, honoring parents and elders)
Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. (family security, national security, social order, clean, reciprocation of favors)
Learned predisposition toward a given object
3 Factors for Middle Age Attitude Stability
- 1) greater personal certainty
- 2) perceived abundance of knowledge
- 3) need for strong attitudes
- *notion that general attitudes become less likely to change as person ages was rejected*
The feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation
The beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation
How one intends to act or behave toward someone or something
Psychological discomfort experienced when attitudes and behavior are inconsistent
Methods to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance (3)
- 1) Change your attitude or behavior or both (simplest solution)
- 2) Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior
- 3) Find consonant elements that outweigh dissonant ones
Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior
- developed and refined a model focusing on intentions as the key link between attitudes and planned behavior
Ajzen's Determinants of Intention (3)
- 1) Attitude toward the behavior: favorable/unfavorable evaluation of behavior in question.
- 2)Subjective Norm: refers to perceived social pressure to/not to perform behavior.
- 3)Perceived behavioral control: perceived ease/difficulty of performing behavior.
- *diagram shows all lead to intention then behavior*
Organizational Commitment (diagram on 164)
extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and its goals
An individual's perception about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange with another party.
Increasing Employee Commitment (3)
- 1)hiring ppl whose values are consistent w/ orgs.
- 2)offering employees variety of benefits
- 3)ensuring mgmt. does not breach psychological contracts to increase level of trust
Extent to which employees give it their all at work
An affective or emotional response to one's job
Extent to which one receives what he or she expects from a job
Extent to which a job allows fulfillment of one's work values
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB's)
- Employee behaviors that exceed work-role requirements
- -read section pg. 171
Overall thoughts and feelings about quitting a job
Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs)
Types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole