Gene Expression II

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Author:
yourmomhaslice
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203280
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Gene Expression II
Updated:
2013-03-02 00:13:05
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Gene Expression EXAM2 biol102
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This will be on the second exam. Lecture date was Febuary 12th
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  1. Transcription
    • DNA TO RNA copying.
    • This occurs in the nucleus.
    • depends on RNA nucleotides base pairing with DNA template strand (What gets copied)
    • There are three steps.
  2. DNA TO RNA copying. This occurs in the nucleus.depends on RNA nucleotides base pairing with DNA template strand (What gets copied)There are three steps
    Transcription
  3. The three steps to transcription
    initiation,elongation, and termination.
  4. initiation,elongation, and termination
    The three steps to transcription
  5. RNA polymerase
    enzyme that synthesizes RNA polymer in bacterial transcription
  6. enzyme that synthesizes RNA polymer in bacterial transcription
    RNA polymerase
  7. Holoenzyme
    core enzyme + regulatory factor in bacterial transcription
  8. Core enzyme
    forms phosphodiester bonds in bacterial transcription.
  9. forms phosphodiester bonds in bacterial transcription.
    Core enzyme
  10. Core Enzyme + regulatory factor in bacterial transcription.
    Holoenzyme
  11. Sigma
    Regulatory Factor in bacterial transcription
  12. Regulatory factor in bacterial transcription.
    Sigma
  13. Transcription Initiation 1
    First step in transcription (OBV!) DNA template says "copy me" to sigma via promoter
  14. First step in transcription (OBV!) DNA template says "copy me" to sigma via promoter
    Transcription initiation 1
  15. Promoter
    • Tells Stigma that DNA template is ready to be copied. It is the DNA region upstream of the transcription start.
    • –contains -10 box and -35 box

    –bound by sigma
  16. Transcription initiation 2
    •Sigma opens DNA helix

    •Transcription begins (ribonucleotides base pair with template strand)
  17. •Sigma opens DNA helix
    •Transcription begins (ribonucleotides base pair with template strand)
    Transcription initiation 2
  18. TRANSCRIPTION Initiation 3
    • •Sigma
    • releases

    • •Transcription
    • continues
  19. •Sigma
    releases

    •Transcription
    continues
    Transcription initiation 3
  20. TRANSCRIPTION Elongation
    RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template and synthesizes RNA in the 5' ® 3' direction
  21. RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template and synthesizes RNA in the 5' ® 3' direction
    TRANSCRIPTION Elongation
  22. Transcription termination
    RNA forms hairpin

    RNA and RNA polymerase separate
  23. RNA forms hairpin

    RNA and RNA polymerase separate
    Transcription termination
  24. TATA Box
    In Eukaryotes, found in pol II (Transcribes Mrna) ( promoters (similar to bacterial -10 and -35 boxes)
  25. In Eukaryotes, found in pol II (Transcribes Mrna) ( promoters (similar to bacterial -10 and -35 boxes)
    TATA Box
  26. RNA processing
    occurs after transcription (only in eukaryotes)

    –splicing

    –cap and tail added
  27. occurs after transcription (only in eukaryotes)–splicing–cap and tail added
    RNA processing
  28. Exons
    coding regions of eukaryotic genes (will be part of the final mRNA product)
  29. coding regions of eukaryotic genes (will be part of the final mRNA product)
    Exons
  30. Introns
    intervening noncoding sequences (not in the final mRNA)
  31. intervening noncoding sequences (not in the final mRNA)
    Introns
  32. Splicing
    removal of introns
  33. removal of introns
    Splicing
  34. Spliceosome
    • –complex
    • of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)

    • –catalyzes
    • the splicing reaction
  35. –complex
    of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)

    –catalyzes
    the splicing reaction
    Spliceosome
  36. How is mRNA modified at the ends?
    5 end gets a cap (3 phosphates added at the end) 3 end gets a tail.
  37. 5’ cap
    • –7-methylguanylate
    • (m7G) and 3 phosphates added to 5’ end

    • –Recognition
    • signal for translation
  38. –7-methylguanylate
    (m7G) and 3 phosphates added to 5’ end

    –Recognition
    signal for translation
    5' cap
  39. Poly(A) tail
    • –100s
    • of adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end

    • –Stabilizes
    • mRNA against degradation
  40. –100s
    of adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end

    –Stabilizes
    mRNA against degradation
    Poly A tail
  41. Protein synthesized
    based on mRNA sequence

    • –Bacteria
    • – occurs simultaneous with transcription

    • –Eukaryotes
    • – occurs separate from transcription (translation in cytosol)
  42. based on mRNA sequence

    –Bacteria
    – occurs simultaneous with transcription

    –Eukaryotes
    – occurs separate from transcription (translation in cytosol)
    Protein Synthesized
  43. Ribosome
    enzyme that forms peptide bonds (translation)
  44. enzyme that forms peptide bonds (translation)
    Ribosomes
  45. tRNA:
    Transfer RNA

    • •adaptor molecule between mRNA codon
    • and amino acid
    • They carry amino acids. 1 amino acid per Trna
  46. •adaptor molecule between mRNA codonand amino acidThey carry amino acids.
    tRNA
  47. Aminoacyl tRNA
    tRNA with amino acid added
  48. tRNA with amino acid added
    Aminoacyl tRNA
  49. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
    enzyme that adds amino acid to tRNA
  50. enzyme that adds amino acid to tRNA
    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
  51. Cloverleaf
    • secondary
    • structure
  52. secondary
    structure
    Clover leaf
  53. L-shaped
    tertiary structure
  54. tertiary structure
    L-shaped
  55. 3’ end CCA
    Binds amino acids
  56. Binds Amino Acids
    3' end CCA
  57. Anticodon
    base pairs with mRNA codon
  58. base pairs with mRNA codon
    Anticodon
  59. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA


    • •2 parts – large
    • subunit and small subunit

    • •3 tRNA
    • binding sites
  60. tRNA structure
    • Clover leaf
    • L-Shaped
    • 3 end CCA
    • Anticodon
  61. Clover leafL-Shaped3 end CCA Anticodon
    tRNA structure
  62. What are the two parts to rRNA?
    • Large sub unit
    • Small sub unit
  63. What are the 3 tRNA binding sites?
    • A site
    • P site
    • E site
  64. A site
    • acceptor Site
    • - Holds an aminoacyl tRNA
  65. Holds an aminoacyl tRNA
    A site (acceptor)
  66. P site
    • Peptide bond forms
    • (Holds the tRNA with growing polypeptide attached)
  67. (Holds the tRNA with growing polypeptide attached)
    P site
  68. E site
    Exit site - holds a tRNA that will exit
  69. holds a tRNA that will exit
    E site
  70. 3 steps to translation
    –Initiation

    –Elongation

    –Termination
  71. Ribosome binding site
    sequence on mRNA complementary to rRNA in small subunit (Translation)
  72. sequence on mRNA complementary to rRNA in small subunit
    Ribosome binding site
  73. Initiation factors
    “help” interaction between mRNA and ribosome (translation)
  74. “help”
    interaction between mRNA and ribosome
    Initiation factors
  75. TRANSLATION INITIATION
    • •Ribosome
    • binding site: sequence
    • on mRNA complementary to rRNA in small subunit
    • •Initiation
    • factors: “help” interaction between mRNA and ribosome
    • •Aminoacyl tRNA
    • binds to start
    • codon
    • •Ribosome large subunit binds
  76. •Ribosome
    binding site: sequence
    on mRNA complementary to rRNA in small subunit
    •Initiation
    factors: “help” interaction between mRNA and ribosome
    •Aminoacyl tRNA binds to start codon
    •Ribosome large subunit binds
    Translation initiation
  77. TRANSLATION ELONGATION 1
    • •Aminoacyl tRNA
    • binds to the codon in the A site

    • •Peptide bond formation between
    • amino acids on the tRNAs in the P and A sites

    • •Ribosome moves down mRNA (A site
    • now empty)
  78. Aminoacyl tRNA
    binds to the codon in the A site
    •Peptide bond formation between
    amino acids on the tRNAs in the P and A sites
    •Ribosome moves down mRNA (A site
    now empty)
    Translation elongation 1
  79. TRANSLATION ELONGATION 2
    •New aminoacyl tRNA binds to the A site

    • •Peptide bond formation between
    • amino acids on the tRNAs in the P and A sites

    • •Ribosome moves down mRNA (A site
    • now empty)

    •E site tRNA ejected
  80. •New aminoacyl tRNA binds to the A site
    •Peptide bond formation between
    amino acids on the tRNAs in the P and A sites
    •Ribosome moves down mRNA (A site
    now empty)
    •E site tRNA ejected
    Translation Elongation 2
  81. TRANSLATION TERMINATION
    •A site comes to stop codon
  82. •A site comes to stop codon
    TRANSLATION TERMINATION
  83. •Release factor
    • –binds
    • to stop codon A site

    • –hydrolyzes
    • (breaks) bond between peptide chain and P site tRNA

    • –peptide
    • chain (protein) and tRNAs
    • released
  84. –binds to stop codon A site
    –hydrolyzes (breaks) bond between peptide chain and P site tRNA
    –peptide chain (protein) and tRNAs released
    Release factor
  85. POLYRIBOSOMES
    • •String
    • of ribosomes along single mRNA

    • •Increases
    • rate of protein synthesis
  86. •String of ribosomes along single mRNA
    •Increases rate of protein synthesis
    Polyribosomes

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