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Human Resource Management
The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees' behavior, attitudes, and performance
An organization's employees, described in terms of their training, experience, judgement, intelligence, relationships, and insight.
Job Analysis vs. Job Design
- Job Analysis: the process of getting detailed information about jobs.
- Job Design: The process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires
Recruitment vs. Selection
- Recruitment: The process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment.
- Selection: The process by which the organization attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that will help the organization achieve its goals.
Training vs. Development
- Training: A planned effort to enable employees to learn job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior.
- Development: The acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that improve an employee's ability to met changes in job requirements and in customer demands.
HR responsibilities of supervisors
- Motivate with support from pay, benefits, and other rewards.
- Communicate policies
- Recommend pay increases and promotions
- Appraise performance
- Interview (and select) candidates
- Provide training
- Forecast HR needs
- Help define jobs
Change in the Labor Force
- Aging workforce
- More diverse workforce
- Skill deficiencies
Giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service.
HRIS vs. e-HRM
- HRIS: A computer system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distribute information related to an organization's human resources
- e-HRM: The processing and transmission of digitized HR information, especially using computer networking and the internet
Changes in Employment Relationship
- A new psychological contract
- Alternative Work Arrangements
- Flexible Work Schedules
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
The condition in which all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin
Equal Pay Act of 1963
- Requires that men and women performing equal jobs receive equal pay
- Enforced by the EEOC
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Major law regulating equal employment opportunity in the US
- Prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals because of their race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
- Enforced by the EEOC
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
Prohibits discrimination in employment against individuals 40 years of age and older
Vietnam Era Veteran's Readjustment Act of 1974
Requires federal contractors and subcontractors to take affirmative action toward employing veterans of the Vietnam War
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy childbirth, or related medical conditions to be a form of illegal sex discrimination
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
prohibits discrimination based on disability in all employment practices such as job application procedures, hiring, firing, promotions, compensation, and training.
Civil Rights Act of 1991
- Prohibits discrimination (Same as Title VII)
- Enforced by EEOC
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994
- Requires rehiring of employees who are absent for military service, with training and accommodations as needed
- Enforced by Veterans' Employment and Training Service
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Agency of the Department of Justice charged with enforcing Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and other anti-discrimination laws.
Differing treatment of individuals, where the differences are based on the individuals' race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
A necessary (not merely preferred) qualification for performing a job.
An employer's obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job
Unwelcome sexual advances as defined by the EEOC.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act)
US law authorizing the federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Labor department agency responsible for inspecting employers, applying safety and health standards, and levying fines for violation
Work Flow Analysis
- Raw Inputs, Equipment, Human Resources
- -->Activity: What tasks are required in the production of the output
- -->Output: what product, information, or service is provided? How is the output measured?
A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails
A list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAQs) that an individual must have to perform a particular job
The process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.
How to Motivate
- Job enlargement
- Job extension
- Job Rotation
- Job Enrichment
- Job Sharing
The study of the interface between individuals' physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment.
Process of Human Resources Planning
- Forecasting the Demand for Labor
- Determining Labor Supply
- Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage
- A set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers
- Ex: Choosing merchandise that shoppers want and providing shoppers with excellent customer service, proper cleaning of environment
Decisions about how it will carry out human resource management, including how it will fill job vacancies
- Internal Sources - job posting, company bulletin boards, employee publications, company intranets
- External Sources - Referrals, Company website, Job boards, Direct Sourcing, College recruiting...
- Newspaper and Magazines
- Should answer: what do we need to say & to whom do we need to say it
- Public Employment Agencies
- Private Employment Agencies
- Colleges and Universities
Recruiter's Traits & Behviors
- Traits - Should be warm and informative
- Behaviors - Should give realistic Job Previews
Components of Strategic HRM
- Analysis and design of work
- HR planning
- Training and Development
- Performance Management
- Employee Relations
- -->Company Performance
Issues Affecting HRM
- Total Quality Management
- International Expansion
- Mergers and Acquisitions