Bio 256 2D

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  1. Substance P
    mediator of pain signals
  2. Beta endorphin
    act as natural opiates, reducing perception of pain
  3. Gut-brain peptides
    (somatostatin, CCK)

    funtion in satiety
  4. Neuropeptide Y
    controls stress response, circadian rhythm, cardiovascular system control
  5. Some neurotransmitters have both excitatory and inhibitory effects determined by what?
    The receptor
  6. Discharge Zone
    Closer neurons receive more synapses
  7. Facilitated zone
    receive fewer synapses
  8. Diverging circuit
    presynaptic neuron's axon terminates on more than 1 postsynaptic neuron

    amplifies circuit
  9. Converging circuit
    single post-synaptic neuron receives information from several other neurons
  10. Frontal Lobe
    Voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles, personality, intellectual processes, speech production
  11. Parietal Lobe
    integrating sensory information, visuospacial processing, information relating to the sense of touch, speech comprehension
  12. Temporal Membrane
    • interpretation of auditory sensations
    • memory of auditory and visual experiences
    • language processing
  13. Occipital Lobe
    • focusing the eyes
    • visual perception and visual memory
    • correlation with other sensory information
  14. Insula
    • memory
    • sesory
    • visceral integration
  15. Alpha Waves
    regular and rhythmis, low amplitude, slow, synchronous waves indicating and "idling" brain
  16. Beta Waves
    rhythmic, more irregular waves occuring during the awake and mentally alert state
  17. Theta Waves
    more irregular than alpha waves, common in children
  18. Delta Waves
    high-amplitude waves seen in deep sleep in adults and in sleep in infants
  19. Types of Sleep
    • NREM
    • REM
  20. Stage 1 of NREM
    • eyes are closed relaxation begins
    • alpha waves
  21. Stage 2 of NREM
    EEG pattern is irregular with sleep spindles
  22. Stage 3 of NREM
    • Sleep deepens
    • Theta and delta wakes 
    • vital signs decline
  23. Stage 4 of NREM
    • EEG pattern is dominated by delta waves
    • skeletal muscles are relaxed
  24. REM
    • Vital signs increase
    • skeletal muscles inhibited
    • most dreaming takes place
  25. Amygdala
    • anger
    • danger
    • and fear responses
  26. Cingulate gyrus
    • expresses emotions via gestures
    • resolves mental conflict
  27. Ways to enhance memory
    • Emotional State (aroused)
    • Rehersal
    • Association
    • Automatic memory
  28. Fact Memory
    • Entails learning explicit information
    • Conscious thoughts
  29. Skill Memory
    • less conscious than fact
    • involves motor activity
    • Acquired through practice
  30. Corpus Striatum of basal nuclei
    mediates connections between stimulus and motor response
  31. Wernicke's area
    words conceived with input from other cerebral areas
  32. Broca's area
    controls motor aspects of speech via precentral gyrus
  33. Aphasia
    Damage to either Wernicke's area or Broca's area
  34. Hypothalamus
    • Behaviors
    • osmoreceptors
    • Thermostat
  35. Master Endocrine Gland
    Pituitary Gland
  36. Apneustic area
    stimulates inspiration
  37. pneumotaxic area
    inhibits apneustic center, inhibiting inspiration
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Bio 256 2D
2013-02-25 19:26:03
Bio 256 Exam

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