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THE most important nutrient
water constitutes up to what % of weight in newborn puppy?
water constitutes up to what % of weight in adult?
- inside&outside of cells
- in most biochemical reactions w/in body
4-5 % dehydration
skin turgidity is lost
7 % dehydration
10 % and above dehydration
ways to assess hydration
- moisture of mucous membranes
- heart rate (faster as a result)
- peripheral pulse (not very strong may be going into shock)
- higher than normal PCV (normal=37-45%)
ways to replace fluid in dehydrated animal
- intravenous -cephalic, jugular, saphenous vein (fastest w/ 100% efficiency)
- subcutaneous- shoulders, hips (when IV cannot be used due to small veins or pediatrics, not absorbed as quickly)
- per os (by mouth. slowest route, should not be used if vomiting)
how to determine how much fluid to replace:
- small animals:
- BW (lbs) x % dehydration (decimal) x 500=deficit in milliliters
- livestock and horses:
- BW (kgs) x % dehydration (decimal) = deficit in liters
considerations in giving fluids
- replace deficits
- maintenance: 1 ml/#/hr (large dogs)
- 2 ml/#/hr (small dogs&cats)
- continued losses
when are replacement fluids stopped?
only when the animal is able to drink and restore its own fluid needs.
if the animal is unable or unwilling to drink maintenance fluids need to be continued.
anesthesia administration rate
rapid rehydration administration rate
20 ml/# for the first hour then reduce to maintenance rate
shock administration rate
- dogs- 40 ml/#/hr
- cats- 25 ml/#/hr
functions of water
- regulate body temp (thermoregulation)
- maintain electrolyte concentration (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium)
- medium for chemical reactions (water is #1 solvent)
- lubricate body tissues (especially joints)
% moisture in food
- dry 6-10%
- semi-moist 23-40%
- canned 68-78 % (up to 82 now)
metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats
fats produce twice the water per unit of weight as carbs and proteins
drinking is controlled by the
- (lies just caudal to the brain,
- serves as the bodies thermoregulator)
stimulation of the hypothalamus
- dryness in mouth
- lack of water in stomach (gastric factors)
- increase in plasma sodium
hormone released when the hypothalamus is stimulated
(causes the animal to be thirsty and will cause kidneys to reabsorb water to preserve it in the bodies system)
why might a dog on IV fluids still be thirsty?
IV fluids will not substitute for the gastric factor or fluid in the stomach
dogs breathe air into the nose and out of mouth. breathing through the nose cools air-effectively lowering their body temp
panting in cats
cats do not normally pant except in extreme cases of stress
(do sweat through pads of feet)
- 104-106 mild
- over 106 moderate to extreme
cool the body slowly/gradually
in tub of cool water, not ice. once temp is normal start IV fluids to restore hydration.
(temp regulation fails quickly in a dehydrated animal)
ways heat stroke can occur
- shadeless yard
- back of truck in summer
- extensive exercise in summer
water restriction results..
- lowers food consumption and limits weight gain and growth.
- long term effects may be serious: urinary caliculi and abnormal mineral deposits in bones and soft tissue
occurs in puppies (don't know amount to consume so keep drinking) and post surgical cases
symptoms: anorexia, lethargy, muscular weakness, ataxia due to sodium depletion
water lost from the body through
- skin (sweat)
- respiration (exhalation)
- milk (lactating animals)
energy is measured in
amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 kg of water 1 degree C
(Calorie, Cal, kilocalorie, kc)
amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degrees C
(calorie or c)
- utilization of all other nutrients
- heat to maintain body temp
the prime regulator of food consumption
determined by completely burning the food to its oxidation products: carbon dioxide, water, and other gases using a Bomb Calorimeter. the heat given off is the G.E.
determined by feeding trial. food consumption and fecal excretion are measured and a gross energy determination of both food and feces is made. D.E. value is calculated by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input.
determined by feeding trial. urine output is also subtracted from the food energy input. this amounts to be about 3 % of the G.E. intake.
determined by body heat losses and subtracting it from the M.E. value
- -subtract fecal energy
- -subtract urinary energy
- -subtract body heat losses
- N.E (want # to be low)
- small breeds grow 30 times birth weight
- med&large 60 times
- giant 90 times
*larger breeds require less food per pound than small breeds
Kcal/Lb/BW small breeds (less than 20#)
Kcal/Lb/BW medium-large breeds (20-75#)
Kcal/Lb/BW giant breeds (greater than 75#)
Kcal/Lb/BW for cats
for every 10 degree temp elevation
7.5 % decrease in the energy requirement
for every 10 degree temp reduction
7.5 % increase in energy requirement
groups of amino acids joined by peptide linkage
chief building blocks of protein
cannot be formed within the body rapidly enough to meet the bodies requirements and therefore must be supplemented.
Arginine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Histadine, Lysine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Threonine, Taurine (cats only)
- body will synthesize these
- do not need to be supplied in diet
what % of an animals body is protein?
- refers to the nitrogen in a food source.
- (nitrogen is found in protein and amino acids)
*not the total amount of protein
crude protein formula
crude protein= % nitrogen x 6.25
- (this number bc protein normally comprised of 16% nitrogen
- 100% / 16%= 6.25 AAFCO standards)
*fairly accurate for ruminants but not monogastric since most of commercial pet foods are heat treated which will destroy essential amino acids
- estimate of protein quality
- reflects the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains
- written as a %
- it equals the percentage of a nutrient that is absorbed and utilized by the body
B.V. of egg, milk, liver, wheat, corn
- egg 100%
- milk 92%
- liver 79%
- wheat 48%
- corn 45%
the higher the %, the less of that food source is required in the diet to meet the amino acid requirements
carnivores or herbivores higher protein needs?
life stages require different protein levels
- growth: more
- geriatric: less
- less food required to meet daily needs
- promotes muscle growth
- provides amino acids during periods of stress
protein restriction results in
- retarded growth
- inadequate tissue repair
- energy shortage
*without sufficient carbs&fats the amino acids normally used for building blocks will then be used for energy instead of building tissue
- occurs mainly in stomach
- amino acids absorbed in small intestine
- digestibility of most commercial pet foods is 70-85%
amino acids absorbed in small intestine are transported to
the liver where they are combined to form physiological proteins or are oxidized to form energy, water, CO2, and urea.
what happens to any excess amino acids
they are excreted bc they cannot be stored. this excretion ultimately occurs through the kidney.
protein> amino acid> ammonia (NH4)>urea (waste)
- protein is converted to amino acids.
- amino acids are utilized.
- ammonia is released as a by-product of amino acid usage.
- ammonia is converted into urea in the liver and excreted by the kidneys.
- (urea is the nitrogen end product of protein metabolism)
is excessive protein harmful to the animal?
- if protein intake is high then ultimately kidneys will have to work harder to excrete the urea.
if kidneys are not able to properly filter the waste...
the urea will remain in the blood as a toxic substance
how to test if kidneys are properly filtering the waste
BUN-Blood Urea Nitrogen test
ways to test BUN
- dip stick- Azostix
- blood chemistry analyzer- Vet test 8008
normal BUN values
avrg BUN is 15-20 mg/dl for most species
cause BUN to rise
- excess dietary protein
- renal disfunction
- heart worm disease
- congestive heart failure
cause BUN to go down
- protein deficiency- starvation
- liver disfunction
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- "mad cow disease"
progressive, degenerative, fatal, neurological disease
theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- infectious principal is an altered form of a protein normally present in the host. the abnormal protein induces a structural change in normal proteins. altered proteins now accumulate in host tissues.
- protein particle that turns normal into abnormal by contact *conversion not replication (contain no nucleic acid to replicate)
- highly resistant to heat, freezing, ultraviolet light, chemical disinfectant procedures that are effective against bacteria and viruses.
-some believe prions not the cause but rather a by-product
human form of mad cow disease
CJD- Creutzfelt-Jakob disease
mad cow disease started in
- 'to tremble with fear'
- transmitted by cannibalism
- primarily affecting children and women
- eventually unable to stand
- most died within 9 months
vitamins required in diets of cats
A & D
better for dental and more economic
excessive amounts of feces
- =high net energy
- not absorbing enough nutrients
try new food
- small breed 6-9 months
- medium 9 months-1 yr
- giant 1.5-2 yrs
feed bigger dogs 2-3 small meals a day to
prevent gastric torsion
to find calorie need:
- 1.get calorie base (BW)(DE)
- 2.multiply answer by .075
- 3.find diff in temp, divide by 10
- 4.take that # and multiply by answer in step 2
- 5.if warmer day then subtract from base, colder add to calorie base.
fewer fecal output
can protein be stored?
bones ground and added
- any part of the animal (feet, nails, etc)
- least diserable
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