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  1. THE most important nutrient
  2. water constitutes up to what % of weight in newborn puppy?
  3. water constitutes up to what % of weight in adult?
  4. water found:
    • inside&outside of cells
    • in most biochemical reactions w/in body
  5. 4-5 % dehydration 
    skin turgidity is lost
  6. 7 % dehydration
    eyes sunken
  7. 10 % and above dehydration
  8. ways to assess hydration
    • moisture of mucous membranes
    • heart rate (faster as a result)
    • peripheral pulse (not very strong may be going into shock)
    • higher than normal PCV (normal=37-45%)
  9. normal PCV
    37-45 %

  10. ways to replace fluid in dehydrated animal
    • intravenous -cephalic, jugular, saphenous vein (fastest w/ 100% efficiency)
    • subcutaneous- shoulders, hips (when IV cannot be used due to small veins or pediatrics, not absorbed as quickly)
    • per os (by mouth. slowest route, should not be used if vomiting)
  11. how to determine how much fluid to replace:
    • small animals:
    • BW (lbs) x % dehydration (decimal) x 500=deficit in milliliters

    • livestock and horses:
    • BW (kgs) x % dehydration (decimal) = deficit in liters
  12. considerations in giving fluids
    • replace deficits
    • maintenance: 1 ml/#/hr (large dogs)
    • 2 ml/#/hr (small dogs&cats)
    • continued losses
  13. when are replacement fluids stopped?
    only when the animal is able to drink and restore its own fluid needs.

    if the animal is unable or unwilling to drink maintenance fluids need to be continued.
  14. anesthesia administration rate
    5 ml/#/hr
  15. rapid rehydration administration rate
    20 ml/# for the first hour then reduce to maintenance rate
  16. shock administration rate
    • dogs- 40 ml/#/hr
    • cats- 25 ml/#/hr
  17. functions of water
    • regulate body temp (thermoregulation)
    • maintain electrolyte concentration (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium)
    • medium for chemical reactions (water is #1 solvent)
    • lubricate body tissues (especially joints)
  18. % moisture in food
    • dry 6-10%
    • semi-moist 23-40%
    • canned 68-78 % (up to 82 now)
  19. metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats
    fats produce twice the water per unit of weight as carbs and proteins
  20. drinking is controlled by the

    • (lies just caudal to the brain,
    • serves as the bodies thermoregulator)
  21. stimulation of the hypothalamus
    • dryness in mouth
    • lack of water in stomach (gastric factors)
    • increase in plasma sodium
  22. hormone released when the hypothalamus is stimulated
    Antidiuretic Hormone

    (causes the animal to be thirsty and will cause kidneys to reabsorb water to preserve it in the bodies system)
  23. why might a dog on IV fluids still be thirsty?
    IV fluids will not substitute for the gastric factor or fluid in the stomach
  24. panting
    dogs breathe air into the nose and out of mouth. breathing through the nose cools air-effectively lowering their body temp
  25. panting in cats
    cats do not normally pant except in extreme cases of stress

    (do sweat through pads of feet)
  26. heat stroke
    • 104-106 mild
    • over 106 moderate to extreme

    cool the body slowly/gradually in tub of cool water, not ice. once temp is normal start IV fluids to restore hydration.

    (temp regulation fails quickly in a dehydrated animal)
  27. ways heat stroke can occur
    • car
    • shadeless yard
    • back of truck in summer
    • extensive exercise in summer
  28. water restriction results..
    • lowers food consumption and limits weight gain and growth.
    • long term effects may be serious: urinary caliculi and abnormal mineral deposits in bones and soft tissue
  29. hydremia
    water intoxication

    occurs in puppies (don't know amount to consume so keep drinking) and post surgical cases

    symptoms: anorexia, lethargy, muscular weakness, ataxia due to sodium depletion 
  30. water lost from the body through
    • urine
    • skin (sweat)
    • respiration (exhalation)
    • feces
    • saliva
    • milk (lactating animals)
  31. energy is measured in
  32. large calorie
    amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 kg of water 1 degree C

    (Calorie, Cal, kilocalorie, kc)
  33. small calorie
    amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degrees C

    (calorie or c)
  34. calories provide
    • utilization of all other nutrients
    • heat to maintain body temp
  35. the prime regulator of food consumption
    dietary energy
  36. protein (cal/gm)
    4 cal/gm
  37. carbohydrates (cal/gm)
    4 cal/gm
  38. fat (cal/gm)
    9 cal/gm
  39. gross energy
    determined by completely burning the food to its oxidation products: carbon dioxide, water, and other gases using a Bomb Calorimeter. the heat given off is the G.E.
  40. digestible energy
    determined by feeding trial. food consumption and fecal excretion are measured and a gross energy determination of both food and feces is made. D.E. value is calculated by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input.
  41. metabolizable energy
    determined by feeding trial. urine output is also subtracted from the food energy input. this amounts to be about 3 % of the G.E. intake.
  42. net energy
    determined by body heat losses and subtracting it from the M.E. value
  43. measuring energy
    • G.E.
    • -subtract fecal energy
    • D.E
    • -subtract urinary energy
    • M.E.
    • -subtract body heat losses
    • N.E (want # to be low)
  44. mature weights
    • small breeds grow 30 times birth weight
    • med&large 60 times
    • giant 90 times

    *larger breeds require less food per pound than small breeds
  45. Kcal/Lb/BW small breeds (less than 20#)
  46. Kcal/Lb/BW medium-large breeds (20-75#)
  47. Kcal/Lb/BW giant breeds (greater than 75#)
  48. Kcal/Lb/BW for cats
    50 cal

    (high metabolism)
  49. for every 10 degree temp elevation
    7.5 % decrease in the energy requirement
  50. for every 10 degree temp reduction
    7.5 % increase in energy requirement
  51. proteins
    groups of amino acids joined by peptide linkage
  52. chief building blocks of protein
    amino acids
  53. essential
    cannot be formed within the body rapidly enough to meet the bodies requirements and therefore must be supplemented

    Arginine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Histadine, Lysine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Threonine, Taurine (cats only)
  54. non-essential
    • body will synthesize these
    • do not need to be supplied in diet
  55. what % of an animals body is protein?
  56. food high in protein
    • egg
    • meat
    • beans
    • chicken
  57. crude protein
    • refers to the nitrogen in a food source. 
    • (nitrogen is found in protein and amino acids)

    *not the total amount of protein
  58. crude protein formula
    crude protein= % nitrogen x 6.25

    • (this number bc protein normally comprised of 16% nitrogen
    • 100% / 16%= 6.25 AAFCO standards)

    *fairly accurate for ruminants but not monogastric since most of commercial pet foods are heat treated which will destroy essential amino acids
  59. biological value
    • estimate of protein quality
    • reflects the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains
    • written as a %
    • it equals the percentage of a nutrient that is absorbed and utilized by the body
  60. B.V. of egg, milk, liver, wheat, corn
    • egg 100%
    • milk 92%
    • liver 79%
    • wheat 48%
    • corn 45%

    the higher the %, the less of that food source is required in the diet to meet the amino acid requirements
  61. carnivores or herbivores higher protein needs?

    (omnivores midrange) 
  62. life stages require different protein levels
    • growth: more
    • geriatric: less
  63. higher protein:
    • less food required to meet daily needs
    • promotes muscle growth
    • provides amino acids during periods of stress 
  64. protein restriction results in
    • retarded growth
    • inadequate tissue repair
    • energy shortage

    *without sufficient carbs&fats the amino acids normally used for building blocks will then be used for energy instead of building tissue
  65. protein digestion
    • occurs mainly in stomach
    • amino acids absorbed in small intestine
    • digestibility of most commercial pet foods is 70-85%
  66. amino acids absorbed in small intestine are transported to
    the liver where they are combined to form physiological proteins or are oxidized to form energy, water, CO2, and urea.
  67. what happens to any excess amino acids
    they are excreted bc they cannot be stored. this excretion ultimately occurs through the kidney.
  68. protein metabolism
    protein> amino acid> ammonia (NH4)>urea (waste)

    • protein is converted to amino acids.
    • amino acids are utilized.
    • ammonia is released as a by-product of amino acid usage.
    • ammonia is converted into urea in the liver and excreted by the kidneys.
    • (urea is the nitrogen end product of protein metabolism)
  69. is excessive protein harmful to the animal?
    • yes&no.
    • if protein intake is high then ultimately kidneys will have to work harder to excrete the urea.
  70. if kidneys are not able to properly filter the waste...
    the urea will remain in the blood as a toxic substance
  71. how to test if kidneys are properly filtering the waste
    BUN-Blood Urea Nitrogen test
  72. ways to test BUN
    • dip stick- Azostix
    • blood chemistry analyzer- Vet test 8008
  73. normal BUN values
    avrg BUN is 15-20 mg/dl for most species
  74. cause BUN to rise
    • excess dietary protein
    • renal disfunction
    • heart worm disease
    • congestive heart failure
  75. cause BUN to go down
    • protein deficiency- starvation
    • liver disfunction
  76. BSE
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    • "mad cow disease"

    progressive, degenerative, fatal, neurological disease
  77. theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    • prions
    • infectious principal is an altered form of a protein normally present in the host. the abnormal protein induces a structural change in normal proteins. altered proteins now accumulate in host tissues.

    • protein particle that turns normal into abnormal by contact *conversion not replication (contain no nucleic acid to replicate)
    • highly resistant to heat, freezing, ultraviolet light, chemical disinfectant procedures that are effective against bacteria and viruses. 

    -some believe prions not the cause but rather a by-product
  78. human form of mad cow disease
    CJD- Creutzfelt-Jakob disease
  79. mad cow disease started in
  80. "kuru"
    • 'to tremble with fear'
    • transmitted by cannibalism
    • primarily affecting children and women
    • eventually unable to stand
    • most died within 9 months
  81. vitamins required in diets of cats
    A & D
  82. better for dental and more economic
    dry food
  83. excessive amounts of feces
    • =high net energy
    • not absorbing enough nutrients

    try new food
  84. mature...
    • small breed 6-9 months
    • medium 9 months-1 yr
    • giant 1.5-2 yrs
  85. feed bigger dogs 2-3 small meals a day to
    prevent gastric torsion
  86. to find calorie need:
    • 1.get calorie base (BW)(DE)
    • 2.multiply answer by .075
    • 3.find diff in temp, divide by 10
    • 4.take that # and multiply by answer in step 2
    • 5.if warmer day then subtract from base, colder add to calorie base.
  87. higher digestibility=
    fewer fecal output
  88. can protein be stored?
  89. meat by-product
    meat&internal organs
  90. meal
    bones ground and added
  91. digest
    • any part of the animal (feet, nails, etc)
    • least diserable
Card Set:
2013-02-26 02:15:36
water energy protein

test 2
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