Chapter 7: Social Perception and Attributes

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Chapter 7: Social Perception and Attributes
2013-02-25 16:36:08

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  1. Perception
    Process of interpreting one's environment
  2. Perception Model (4 Stages)
    • 1)Selective Attention/Comprehension (ppl, events, objects)
    • 2)Encoding+Simplification
    • 3)Storage+Retention (memory)
    • 4)Retrieval+Response(judgements, decisions)
  3. Attention (stage 1)
    Being consciously aware of something/someone
  4. Cognitive Categories (stage 2)
    Mental depositories for storing information
  5. Schema (stage 2)
    Mental picture of an event or object
  6. Script (stage 2)
    A mental picture of an event
  7. Event Memory (Stage 3)
    compartment composed of categories containing information about both specific and general events (going to a restaurant)
  8. Semantic Memory (stage 3)
    • refers to general knowledge about the world
    • -each concept contains a definition (good leader) and associated traits (outgoing), emotional states (happy), physical characteristics (tall), and behaviors (works hard)
    • -stored as schemata
  9. Person Memory (stage 3)
    information about a single individual or groups of people
  10. Implicit Cognition
    Any thought or belief that is automatically activated without conscious awareness
  11. Stereotype
    Beliefs about the characteristics of a group
  12. Commonly Found Perceptual Errors (5)
    • 1)Halo
    • 2)Leniency
    • 3)Central Tendency
    • 4)Recency Effects
    • 5)Contrast Effects
    • *read chart in book pg. 189*
  13. Sex-Role Stereotype
    Beliefs about appropriate roles for men and women
  14. Micro Aggressions
    Biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings that exist at an unconscious level
  15. Stereotype Threat
    The predicament in which members of a social group (African American Women) must deal with the possibility of being judged or treated stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the stereotype.
  16. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    Someone's high expectations for another person result in high performance
  17. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Model
    Supervisor Expectancy --> Leadership --> Subordinate self-expectancy --> Motivation --> Performance
  18. Galatea Effect
    An individual's high self-expectations lead to high performance
  19. Golem Effect
    Loss in performance due to low leader expectations
  20. Causal Attributions
    Suspected or inferred causes of behavior
  21. Kelley's Model of Attribution: Internal Factors
    Personal characteristics that cause behavior (ability and effort)
  22. Kelley's Model of Attribution: External Factors
    • Environmental characteristics that cause behavior (task difficulty, help from others)
    • *model on pg. 198*
  23. Fundamental Attribution Bias
    Ignoring environmental factors that affect behavior
  24. Self-Serving Bias
    Taking more personal responsibility for success than failure