Amino Acid/Protein Terms

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Amino Acid/Protein Terms
2013-04-01 18:53:51

Terms from the amino acid and protein glossary. Compiled by Cynthia
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  1. Polymers consisting of chains of amino acids linked together. They are very important and play a role in almost every biological function
  2. an organic compound
    that contains an amino group and a carboxylate group in ionic form
    amino acid
  3. What re the 4 classifications of amino acids? What are these classifications based on?
    • non-polar
    • polar but neutral
    • acidic
    • basic
    • These classifications are based on the side chains
  4. Are the 20 common amino acids alpha or beta amino acids?
    Alpha (because the amino group is linked to the carbon attached to the COO- group)
  5. Are most amino acids in L or R form?
    L (NH3 group is on the left)
  6. a dipolar ion that carries both a negative and a positive charge
  7. Are amino acids amphoteric?
    Yes, they can act as either an acid or a base
  8. the characteristic pH of an amino acid where there is no net charge (molecules have
    equal positive and negative charges)
    isoelectric point
  9. a carboxylic group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group from a second amino acid
    peptide formation
  10. compound formed from 2 amino acids are bonded by an amide linkage
  11. an amino acid polymer of short chain length
  12. an amino acid chain of intermediate length (~ 50 amino acids)
  13. a long chain amino acid polymer of more than 50 amino acids
  14. an amino acid that is part of a peptide, polypeptide or protein chain
    amino acid residue
  15. an amino acid on the end of the chain that has an unreacted, free amino group
    N-terminal residue
  16. an amino acid on the end of a chain that has an unreacted, free carboxylate group
    C-terminal residue
  17. Made up of long rod-shaped / string-like molecules that intertwine to form fibers
    Water insoluble (eg. skin, hair, nails, fur, spider webs)
    Structural proteins (eg. collagen, elastin, keratin)
    Fibrous Protein
  18. More spherical; either dissolves in water or forms a stable suspension
    Transport proteins (eg. enzymes, hemoglobin)
    Moved through the body by the circulatory system
    Globular protein
  19. A protein made up of only amino acid residues
    simple protein
  20. a protein made up of amino acid residues and other organic or inorganic components
    conjugated protein
  21. the non-amino acid group of a conjugated proteinĀ  (may be metals, lipids or carbohydrates)
    prosthetic group
  22. a chemical or physical agent that destroys the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure,
    but leaves the primary structure intact
  23. heating of a peptide or protein in the presence of acid or base to break into smaller peptides or
    amino acids
    protein hydrolysis
  24. Protein Infections particle
    Transmissible agents that do NOT contain DNA/RNA
  25. The order of amino acid residues that make up a protein chain
    Primary Structure
  26. Give two examples of secondary structures
    • Alpha helix
    • Beta pleated sheet
  27. What type of bonds are involved in the secondary structure of a protein?
    hydrogen bonds
  28. The following types of interactions are involved in the ___ structure of a protein:
    Disulfide bridges
    Salt bridges
    Hydrogen bonds
    Hydrophobic interactions
    Metal Ion coordination
  29. Does a peptide bond rotate?
    No, peptide bonds are planar (because the double bond flips between oxygen and nitrogen)
  30. Denaturation by reduction typically involves reducing ____ to _____
    cystine to cysteine
  31. Does denaturation break the primary structure of a protein?
  32. Does a quaternary structure involve multiple proteins?