_____ and _____ determine blood flow and affect rates of capillary exchange
Pressure & Resistance
The difference in pressure from one end of the vessel to the other is known as what?
The Pressure Gradient
This refers to arterial pressure and is usually reported in millimeters of mercury.
Average systemic arterial pressures range from an average of ____ mm Hg at the entrance to the aorta to roughly _____ mm Hg at the start of the capillary network.
100 & 35
What is the force exerted by a fluid pressing against a wall?
Along the length of a typical capillary, pressures decline from roughly ____ mm Hg to about ____ mm Hg.
35 & 18
The pressure within the venous system is called what?
The venous pressure is quite low, the pressure gradient from the venules to the right atrium is only about _____ mm Hg.
The resistance of the entire cardiovascular system is called what?
Total Peripheral Resistance
The transfer of liquid and solutes between the blood and interstitial fluid.
The total peripheral resistance of the cardiovascular system reflects a combination of which factors?
1) Vascular resistance
2) Blood Viscosity
The forces that oppose blood flow in the blood vessels is called what?
What is the most important factor in vascular resistance?
The friction between blood and the vessel walls.
Increasing the length of a blood vessel increases friction: the longer the vessel, the larger the surface area in contact with blood.
True or False?
True: Hall walkway example
The effects of friction on blood act in a narrow zone closest to the vessel wall. Which explains why friction is greater in vessels with a smaller diameter. PVC Pipe Example
Most of the peripheral resistance occurs where?
In the arterioles, the smallest vessels of the arterial system.
The resistance to flow caused by interactions among molecules and suspended materials in a liquid.
Whole blood has a viscosity about five times that of water because of its ____ ____ and ____ ____.
Plasma Protiens & Blood Cells
High flow rates, irregular surfaces, and sudden changes in vessel diameter upset the smooth flow of blood, creating eddies and swirls in a phenomenon called what?
A resistance due to friction within a blood vessel, primarily between the blood and the vessel
The pressure difference between the base of ascending aorta and the entrance to the right atrium.
A pressure exerted by a liquid in response to an applied force
A Force that opposes movement; in this case, blood flow.
The peak blood pressure measured during ventricular systole is called what?
The minimum blood pressue at the end of ventricular diastole is called what?
A rhythmic fluctuation in pressure that accompanies each heartbeat.
The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure is called what?
What is calculated by adding one-third of the pulse pressure to the diastolic pressure?
Mean arterial Pressure
Abnormal high blood pressure is termed _____
Abnormally low blood pressure is known as what?
The stretching and recoiling of the arterial walls during ventricular systole and diastole is called what?
The amount of blood arriving at the right atrium each minute.
____ _____ has a direct impact on cardiac output.
Pressures to the right atrium fluctuate, but they average about ___ mm Hg.
The effective pressure in the venous system is roughly ___ mm Hg. (From 18 mm Hg in the venules to 2 mm Hg in the vena cavae).
The pressures of the aorta system average about ____ mm Hg. from ___ mm Hg at the aorta to _____ mm Hg at the cappilaries.
As you exhale, your thoracic cavity decreases in size. Internal pressure then rises, forcing air out of your lungs and pushing benous blood into the right atrium. A mechanism called what?
The most important processes that move materials across typical capillary walls are what?
The net movement of ions or molecules from an area whee their concentration is higher to an area where concentration is lower.
The removal of solutes as a solution flows across a porous membrane
Reabsorbtion in the cappilaries occurs as a result of what?
The continuous movement of water out of capillaries, through peripheral tissues, and then back to the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system has four important functions
1) It ensures that plasma and (IF) are in constant communication and mutual exchange
2)It accelerates the distribution of nutrients, hormones, and dissolved gases throughout tissues.
3) It assists in the transport of insoluble lipids and tissue proteins that cannot enter the bloodstream by crossing capillary walls.
4) It has a flushing action that carries bacterial toxins and other chemical stimuli to lymphatic tissues and organs responsible for providing immunity to disease.
The Difference between the Net Hydrostatic pressure and the net osmotic pressure.
Net Filtration pressure (NFP)
Of the roughly 24 liters of fluid that move out of the plasma and into the interstitial fluid each day, _____ liters (___%) are reabsorbed. with the remaining (___L) flowing through tissues and into the Lymphatic vessels, for return to the venous System.
What happens to blood volume and blood pressure during hemorrhaging?
They both decline which results with a reduced CHP which lowers the NFP and increases the amount of reabsorbtion
The lowering of NFP results in a reduction in the volume of (IF) and an increase in the volume of Circulating plasma volume. This process is known as:
Recall of fluids
If CHP rises or the BCOP declines, fluid moves out of the blood and builds up in peripheral tissues, a conditon called _____.
Cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms involve ____, ___ ____, and ___ ____.
Factors that promote the dilation of precapillary Sphincters are called:
What are examples of Vasodilators?
1) Decreased tissue 02 or increased CO2 levels
2) Lactic acid or other acids generated by tissue cells.
3) Nitric oxide released from endothelial cells
4)Rising concentrations of K+ ions or H+ Ions in the (IF) fluid.
5) Chemicals released during local inflammation, including Histamine and NO
6) Elevated Local Temperature
Aggregated platelets and damaged tissues produce compounds that stimulate precapillary sphincters to constrict making them what?
This process involves both neural and endocrine mechanisms.
This process involves changes in the pattern of blood flow within capillary beds.
Factors that promote the dilation of blood vessels are called what?
The sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves are always active producing a significant ___ ___.
The resistance of a maximally constricted arteriole is roughly ____ times that of a fully dialated arteriole.
The ______ respond to changes in the blood pressure.
The ____ ____ monitor changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood.
The _____ _____ _____ begins in the capillaries of the degestive organs, and ends in the liver sinusoids.
Hepatic Portal System
A blood vessel connecting two capillary beds is called a what?
Levels of ____ _____ and ____ _____ in the hepatic portal vein often exceed those found anywhere else in the cardiovascular system.
Blood Glucose & Amino Acids
The composition of the blood in the systemic circuit is relatively stable despite changes in ____ and ____ _____.
Diet & Digestive Activity
In the lower respiratory system, the ___ beat toward the pharynx, moving a carpet of mucus in that direction and cleaning the respiratory surfaces.
The movement of mucus toward the pharynx by cilia is called what?
Low tissue oxygen levels.
If the oxygen supply is completely the resulting condition is called what?
If you decrease the volume of gas, the pressure will _____.
If you increase the volume of gas, the pressure will ____.
Rise & Fall
What is the formula for Boyle's Law?
How easily the lungs expand is also known as their what?
Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately ____ psi.
One cm H20 is equivalent to _____ mm Hg.
The unit of measurement prerffered by many respiratory therapists; is equal to mm Hg numerically. Is commonly used in Europe.
The direction of airflow is determined by the relationship between ______ Pressure and _______ pressure.
Atmospheric & Intrapulmonary
The pressure inside the respiratory tract at the alveoli is called what?
On inhalation, your lungs expand, and the intrapulmonary pressure drops to about _____ mm Hg; 1 mm Hg below atmospheric pressure.
On exhalation, your lungs recoil, and intrapulmonary pressure rises to ____mm Hg; or +1 mm Hg.
_____ _____ is the pressure inside the pleural cavity, and averages about ____ mm Hg.
Intrapleural Pressure & -4
A single cycle of inhalation and exhalation is called what?
A respiratory Cycle
____ ____ and ____ _____ produce compounds that stimulate precapillary sphincters to constrict, therefore, these compounds are called Local Vasoconstrictors.
Aggregating platelets & Damaged Tissues
This is released in response to a decrease in blood volume, an increase in the osmotic concentration of the plasma, or (secondarily) to circulating Angiotensin II.
This appears in response to a fall in renal blood pressure.
How do Natriuretic peptides reduce blood volume and pressure?
1) Increase sodium excretion in kidneys
2) Increase the amount of urine produced
3) Reduces Thirst
4) Inhibits the release of ADH, Ald, E, & NE
5) Stimulates peripheral Vasodilation
What are four important functions of Angiotensin II?
1) Stimulated production of Aldosterone
2) Stimulates secretion of ADH
3) Stimulates Thirst
4) Stimulates cardiac output & triggers constriction of arterioles.
Elevation of the ribcage and contraction of the diaphragm increase the size of the thoracic cavity; pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases.
The rib cage returns to its original position and the diaphragm relaxes; the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
What are the most important respiratory muscles?
The Diaphragm & External intercostal Muscles
What action forces the diaphragm upward during exhalation?
The abdominal muscles compress the abdomen and force the diaphram upward.
What are the actions involved in exhalation?
the internal intercostal and transversus thoracic muscles depress the ribs reducing the depth and width of thoracic cavity.
Abdominal muscles compress the abdomen and push the diaphram upward.
we usually classify respiratory movements as ___ breathing, or _____ Breathing.
Quiet & Forced
Contraction of the diaphragm brings about roughly ____ % of the air movement in normal breathing at rest.
Contraction of the external intercostal muscles contribute to roughly ____ % of the volume of the air in the lungs at at rest.
During ____ Breathing or____, inhalation involves musclular contractions, but exhalation is a passive process.
Quiet Breathing, or Eupnea
During _____ Breathing, or ______ Breathing, contraction of the diaphragm provides the necessary change in thoracic volume. Air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm contracts. air is exhaled passively when the diaphragm relaxes.
Diaphragmatic, or Deep
In _____ or ______ breathing, The thoracic volume changes because the rib cage alters its shape.
Costal OR Shallow
When the muscles of inhalation relax, these elastic components recoil, returning the diaphragm, the rib cage, or both to their original positions in an action called what?
_____ Breathing, or _______, involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements; our accessory muscles assist with inhalation, and exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles.
Forced Or Hyperpnea
The number of breaths you take each minute.
What is the normal respiratory rate of a resting adult?
12-18 Breaths per minute
The amount of air moved each minute is symbolized as ______, and is called what?
Respiratory Minute Volume
The Respiratory rate at rest averages_____breaths per minute, and the tidal volume at rest averages around_______ml per breath.
The amount of air in the conducting passsages is known as the ____ ____ ____, denoted __.
Anatomic Dead Space
The amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute is called ____ ____ and is symbolized as ____.
At reast, alveolar venilation rates are approximately ___ Liters per minute
(12 X 350mL).
Symbolized ____, and is the amont of air reaching the alveoli each minute.
the amount of air you move into your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
Tidal Volume Vt
The amount of air that you can voluntarily expel after you have completed a normal, quiet respiratory cycle.
The Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
The average ERV for Males is_____ mL.
The average ERV for Females is____ mL.
The amount of air that remains in your lungs even after a maximal exhalation.
The Residual volume is typically ____ mL in males and ______ mL in females.
1200 & 1100
A component of the residual volume, and is the amount of air that would remain in your lungs if they were allowed to collapse.
The minimum volume ranges from ___ to ___mL
The amount of air that you can take in over and above the tidal volume.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The average IRV for Males is ___ and Females is ____.
The amount of air that you can draw into your lungs after you hae completed a quiet respiratory cycle.
The sum of the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume is called what?
The amount of air remaining in your lungs after you have completed a quiet respiratory cycle.
Functional residual capacity
The sum of the expiratory reserve volume, and the residual volume
The Functional Residual Capacity
The maximum amount of air that you can move into or out of your lungs in a single respiratory cycle.
The Vital Capacity
The sum of the expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and the inspiratory reserve volume.
The Vital capacity averages around ____mL in males and _______mL in Females.
The total volume of your lungs calculated by adding the vital capacity and the residual volume.
Total lung Capacity
The total lung capacity averages around _____ml in males and ____mL in females.
The pressure contributed by a single gas in a mixture of gases.
Partial pressure of Nitrogen in inhaled air is what?
597 mm/Hg (78.6%)
The partial pressure of Oxygen in inhaled air is what?
159 mm/Hg (20.9%)
Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide is what?
Partial pressure of water vapor (H2O) is What?
Gas exchange at the respiratory membrane is efficient for the following 5 Reasons:
1)Differences N partial pressure R substantial
2)Short distance of gas exchange
3)The gases are lipid soluble
4)Total surface area is large
5) Blood flow and airflow R coordinated
Most oxygen is transported bound to hemoglobin; and carbon dioxide is transported in three ways:
1) As Carbonic Acid
2) Bound to Hemoglobin
3) Dissolved in plasma
a graph that relates the hemoglobin saturation to the partial pressure of oxygen.
Oxygen-Hemoglobin saturation curve
At a given Po2, hemoglobin releases additional oxygen if the ph does what?
At a given Po2 hemoglobin realeases additional oxygen if the temperature does What?
The mass movement of chloride ions into the RBCs, is an event known as the _____ ____.
____ % of carbon dioxide diffuses into RBCs,
_____% Converted to carbonic acid,
_____% binds to Hb
The _____ functions in every respiratory cycle, whether quiet or forced.
The ____ functions only during forced breathing.
an increase in the Pco2 of ARTERIAL blood.
An abnormally low Pco2
the ___ reflex prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing.
The ___ reflex normally functions only during forced exhalation, when both the inspiratory and expiratory centers are active.