Oogenesis

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Author:
nganle
ID:
203374
Filename:
Oogenesis
Updated:
2013-03-02 22:08:29
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Oogenesis
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Description:
Cell Dev
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  1. The nucleus of the primary oocyte increase in volume to form ?
    germinal vesicle
  2. what happen inside germinal vesicle ?
    • RNA synthesis increased
    • decondensed chromosomal (lampbrush chromosome)
    • high level of gene transcription
  3. what organelles are much abundant in oocyte ?
    cytoplasmic
  4. what happen in oocyte ?
    • rRNA genes are repeated to form nucleolus organizer
    • transcript nucleolus organizer to nucleolus
    • nucleoli provide cells with ribosomes
    • production of ribosomes needed for an oocyte is accelerated
    • synthesis of rRNAs by selective gene amplification
  5. in insect ?
    • germ cells become nurse cells
    • develop as a clone of cells joined by cytoplasmic bridges
  6. nurse cells ?
    • polyploid
    • synthesize RNA from repeated gene copies
    • supply RNA to oocyte
  7. what part of oocyte are syntheszed in the liver or fat body ?
    yolk contains proteins, lipids, and glycogen to nourish the developing embryo
  8. Yolk ?
    • accumulates in egg cytoplasm
    • membranous vesicle hold water solube components
    • water insolube yolk components exist as free droplets
  9. the process of yolk formation is ?
    vitellogenesis
  10. where vitellogenin occurs in vertebrates ?
    liver
  11. where vitellogenin occurs in insect ?
    fat body
  12. vitellogenins travel via bloodstream and taken up to oocyte by ?
    receptor mediated endocytosis
  13. what pituitary secrete ?
    gonadotropin
  14. what follicle cell produce ?
    estrogen
  15. estrogen cause liver to form ?
    vitellogenin
  16. hypothalamus secrete ?
    gonadotropin releasing hormine
  17. vitellogenins formation in insects ?
    • corpus allatum release juvenile hormone
    • this hormone stimulate follicle cells to produce ecdysone
    • ecdysone stimulates the fat body and follicle cells produce vitellogenin
  18. oocytes receive signals from surrounding cells in ovary causing ?
    assymetrical distribution of cytoplasm about an axis
  19. stages of meiosis different of animal species are ovulated and fertilized
    worms ovulation with germinal vesicle still intact, meiosis continues after fertilization

    sea urchin meiotic division complete by the time of fertilization

    human release from meiotic arrest at Prophase I, ovulation complete meiosis I.  Second meiotic arrest at Metaphase II, end of maturation, fertilization follow
  20. Oocyte maturation in amphibians ?
    • hypothalamus release hormones to stimulate pituitary gland
    • pituitary produces gonadotropic hormones
    • this hormones stimulate follicle cells to secrete progesterone
    • progesteron acts on oocyte surface
    • oocyte maturation occurs within a few hours after hormonal stimulation.
  21. what protein serve progesterone treated oocytes ?
    maturation promoting factor (MPF)
  22. maturation promoting factor ?
    • is potein kinase
    • positive feedback
    • phosphorylate its own cyclin
  23. what cause second arrest of oocyte ?
    cytostatic factor
  24. what keep the egg arrested in Metaphase II until fertilization ?
    • c mos protein¬†
    • maturation promoting factor
    • cytostatic factor
  25. when calcium ion rise in the egg ?
    when sperm entry egg surface
  26. what destroy MDF and cmos protein ?
    Ca 2+
  27. an immature follicle contains one oocyte surrounded by ?
    somatic cell called granulosa cells
  28. glycoproteins layer cover oocyte called ?
    zona pellucida
  29. what extension within zona pellucida ?
    microvilli
  30. microvilli keep space from what ?
    oocyte developing and follicle granulosa cell
  31. mature follicle is called ?
    Graafian follicle
  32. flui filled space of graafian follicle called ?
    antrum
  33. mature follicle are located near ?
    the peryphery of the ovary
  34. ovulation ?
    • follicular antrum bursts open
    • oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells is ovulated
  35. in amphabian, what follicle cell produce in oocyte maturation ?
    progesterone
  36. how estrogen produce in mammal?
    • hypothalamus release gonadotropin releasing hormones
    • this hormone stimulate pitutary gland to produce follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
    • these two hormones stimulate granulosa cells to produce estrogen.
  37. egg plasma membrane covered by glycoprotein layer called ?
    zona pellucida
  38. what somatic cell is the same with follicular cells ?
    granulosa cells
  39. the whole process of maturation of the egg is reffered as ?
    folliculogenesis
  40. folliculogenesis ?
    • primordial follicle contains primary oocyte as its arrested at Prophase 1
    • oocyte produce protective zona pellucida
    • theca folliculi forms outside the granulosa cells
    • membrana granulosa is basement membrane between granulosa cells and the theca
    • fluid filled forms within multilayered granulosa cells covering aka secondary follicle.
  41. what follicle only respone to gonadotropins of hypothalamus?
    secondary follicle
  42. graafian follicle aka ?
    tertiary follicle
  43. when the first polar body is released ?
    complete the first meiotic division
  44. what secrete estrogen and progesterone ?
    corpus luteum

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