AP psych test 3

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AP psych test 3
2013-02-25 21:23:58

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  1. Stage 1 sleep
    pulse slows a bit more your muscles relax, but your breathing becomes uneven and your brain waves grow irregular.
  2. Stage 2 sleep
    brain waves occasionally shift from low-amplitude, high frequency waves to high-amplitude, low-frequency waves, Eyes role side to side, lasts 30 minutes
  3. Stage 3 sleep
    large amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain every second or so
  4. Stage 4 sleep
    large regular delta waves occurring more than 50% of the time
  5. Why do we sleep? adaptive
    in earlier times sleep kept humans out of harm's way at night when humans would have been most vulnerable
  6. Why do we sleep? conserving energy
    primitive hibernation to conserve energy
  7. Why do we sleep? restorative
    to charge up their batteries believe brain recovers from exhaustion and stress
  8. conciousness
    a state of awareness
  9. REM sleep
    a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements a high level of brain activity a deep relaxation of the muscles and dreaming
  10. Circadian rhythm
    24-25 hour sleep cycle --> biological clock
  11. insomnia
    the failure to get enough sleep at night
  12. sleep  apnea
    sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep
  13. narcolepsy
    a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day
  14. night terors
    sleep disruptions that occur during stage 4 involving screaming panic or confusion last five to twenty minutes. subjects no memory of it
  15. sleep walking
    walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep no memory associated with children although some adults may sleepwalk
  16. Hypnosis
    a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility highly suggestible to changes in behavior
  17. Theodore barber
    believed hypnosis not a special state of consciousness
  18. Ernest Hilgard
    believe something special with hypnotic state. go along with hypnotist
  19. "stage" hypnosis vs "real" hypnosis
    Stage hypnosis is fake but it proves people will do whatever because they are expected too(social influence theory) and they will listen to authority figures(basic suggestion effect)
  20. look over drug handout
    look over the drug handout
  21. sensation
    what occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor
  22. perception
    the organization of sensory information into meaninful experiences
  23. psychophysics
    study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that cause them
  24. absolute threshold
    the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
  25. difference threshold
    the smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
  26. Weber's law
    the principle that the larger or stronger a stimulus the larger the change required for and observer to notice a difference
  27. preattentive process/ bottom-up
    just seeing it
  28. attentive process/top-down
    thinking about it
  29. Cocktail party effect
    can focus on a single stimulus among many
  30. Change Blindness
    Change blindness is missing sudle changes ---> card trick video and the person swap video
  31. Sensory adaption
    senses will adapt to changes
  32. subliminal messages
    breif auditory or visual messages that are presented below absolute threshold
  33. priming
    getting someone warmed up to an idea before presenting it
  34. know anatomy of eye and ear i have to draw it for a Essay question
    DRAW EYE AND EAR?!?!?!!
  35. rods and cones
    • Cones: color and daylight
    • Rods: seeing in the dark
    • Way more rods than cones
  36. retinal disparity
    difference between two views
  37. feature detection
    nerve cell responds to specific feature of a stimulus
  38. parallel processing
    divide images into subdivisions and process simultaniously
  39. detecting stimuli: vision
    sees through the pupil to the lens then retina through then the optic nerve to the thalmus to the occipital lobe of the brain
  40. detecting stimuli: hearing
    in the ear through the ear canal to eardrum to the hammer anvil stirrup to the cochlea were it moves and gets the auditory nerves excited
  41. detecting stimuli: vestibular system
    semicircular canals inside the inner ear that control balance and movement
  42. detecting stimuli: smell
    in your nose tickiling hairs making them send signals --> olfactory nerve
  43. detecting stimuli: taste
    tongue. tip sweet, front sides salty, sides sour, back of tongue is bitter. trenches in tongue contain tastebuds.
  44. detecting stimuli: skin
    pressure, warmth, cold and pain all in the skin
  45. detecting stimuli: Kinesthesis
    the  sense of movement and body position. comes from sensors in muscles tendons and joints.
  46. Gestalt principal: proximity
    when we see a number of similar objects we tend to perceive them as groups or sets of those that are close to each other
  47. Gestalt principles: similarity
    when similar and dissimilar objects are migled we see the similar objects as groups
  48. Gestalt principle: closure
    when we see a familiar pattern or shape with some missing parts we fill in the gaps
  49. Gestalt principle: continuity
    we tend to see continuous patterns not disrupted ones
  50. Gestalt principle: simplicity
    we see the simplest shapes possible
  51. Gestalt principle: figure-ground perception
    ability to discriminate properly between a figure and its background
  52. Gestalt principle: Phi Phenomenon
    percieve movements w/ flashing lights
  53. perceptual constancy
    things tend to stay the same
  54. perceptual adaption
    we adapt to the changes we see
  55. Monocular depth cues
    cues can be used with a  single eye
  56. Monocular - relative height
    objects that appear farther away are higher on plane of view
  57. monocular - inerposition
    overlapping of images causes us to view the objects we can see in it's entirety to be closer than one whose outline is interrupted
  58. monocular - light and shadow
    info on objects shape and size
  59. monocular - motion parallax
    apparent movement of objects that occurs when you move your head from side to side or when you walk around
  60. Binocular depth cues
    depend on movement of both eyes
  61. binocular - convergence
    processwhich your eyes turn inward to look at a nerby object