Bile is manufacture by the ______ and it is transported by _______.
Where is bike stored?
What is the largest solid organ in the body?
The liver occupies most of the _______ _______ quadrant.
Right upper quadrant
The liver occupies almost all of the ______ hypogastrium, a major part of the _________, and a substantial part of the ______ hypogastrium.
The liver is in the shape of a _______?
The upper boarder is the _________ part of the liver. it is also ________ to conform to the inferior surface of the _______ ________.
The vertical dimension of the liver is greatest along the ______ boarder of the liver.
The liver is mostly protected by the rib cage because it is a vascular organ. The ______ boarder extends to the level of the ______the rib , just above the ______ kidney.
Where does the distal end of the gallbladder extend compared to the inferior margin of the liver? Where does the rest of the gallbladder lie?
the gallbladder extends slightly below the anterior, inferior margin of the liver.
the rest lies along the inferior posterior surface of the liver
How many major lobes are the liver divided into? How many minor?
Which lobe of the liver is the largest?
Right(it contains the two minor lobes)
What are the right and left lobes of the liver separated by?
Where is the quadrate lobe of the right liver located?
It is located on the inferior surface of the right lobe between the gallbladder and the falciform ligament
Where is the caudate lobe of the liver located?
It is located posteriorly to the quadrate lobe and extends superiorly to the diaphragmatic surface
How many functions does the liver perform?
What is the most important function of the liver radiograhically?
The liver produces about 1 quart of bile per day
What is the function of bile?
Breaks down fats and aids in digestion
Where is bile formed?
In the lobules of the liver
How does bile travel?
Bile travels by small ducts, either to the right or left hepatic duct
What joins together at the common hepatic duct?
The right and duct hepatic duct
How is bile carried to the gallbladder?
Bile is carried to the gallbladder through the cystic duct or is emptied directly into the duodenum by the way of the common bile duct
The gallbladder is _____ shaped.
In the gallbladder, the broad distal end is the _____ and the narrow proximal end is the ______. There is also a body, which is the main section of the gallbladder.
What are the 3 functions of the gallbladder?
Store bile (if bile is not needed for digestive purposes, it is stored for future use in the gallbladder)
concentrate bile (the gallbladder removes water-hydrosis-to concentrate the bile)
contract when stimulated(fats in the duodenum cause the duodeal mucosa to release a hormone called cholecystokinin, CCK. CCK causes the gallbladder to contract and the common bile duct to relax)
How is the common bile duct formed?
It is formed by the common hepatic duct draining the liver and the cystic duct of the gallbladder.
The common bile duct descends behind the ______ portion of the ________ and the head of the ________ to enter the ________ portion of the ________.
What is the end of the CBD closely associated with?
It is closely associated one end of the pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung)
In about what percent of the population does the CBD and the Duct of Wirsung form one common passageway through the single papilla into the duodenum? What is this common passageway called?
Ampulla of Vater
Where is the sphincter of Oddi located and what does it do?
It is located near the terminal opening of the ampulla of Vater into the duodenum
it is a muscle sphincter that controls the opening and closing of the duodenum
when does the sphincter of Oddi relax?
The sphincter of Oddi relaxes when levels of CCK increases in the bloodstream.
What does the sphincter of Oddi cause?
It causes a protrusion into the lumen of the duodenum that is referred to as the duodenal papilla or papilla of Vater
Where is the gallbladder compared to the midcoronal plane?
Which position would place the gallbladder closer to the film?
Where does the biliary system lie?
In the midcoronal plane
What positioning is best to drain the gallbladder into the duct system?
In what body habitus is the gallbladder higher and more lateral? What position will shift the GB away from the spine?
15-20 degree LAO position
In what body habitus is the crest closer to the midline? What position is required to shift the GB away from the spine?
35-40 degrees LAO position
In what body habitus is the gallbladder usually located about halfway between the xprocess tip and the lower lateral rib margin (at the vertebral level of L2). What position is required to shift the GB away from the spine?
Sthenic/hypothetic (avg. body builds)
20-25 degree LAO
the gallbladder and biliary ducts blend in with other abdominal structures, therefore contrast media must be used in order to visualize them.
Only about ___% of all gallstones contain enough calcium to be visualized on a plain abdominal film.
Sac or bladder
what is the radiographic examination of the gallbladder?
The radiographic examination of the biliary ducts.