Bio 2.2 Lab Exam 2: Arthropoda

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Bio 2.2 Lab Exam 2: Arthropoda
2013-02-26 07:18:06
spring2013 bio22 labexam2

Lab Exam 2
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  1. What is the main evolutionary advantage that arthropods have?
    A chitinous exoskeleton.
  2. What is tagma?
    Functional regions of an arthropod where two or more body segments fuse.
  3. What parts of the body are typically tagma in arthropoda?

    Head, Thorax, and Abdomen.

    Spiders: Head/Thorax create cephalothorax.
  4. What are the layers of the exoskeleton?
    • Procuticle: thick layer, made of chitin and protein sclerotin
    • Epicuticle: thinner layer; made of lipids and proteins
  5. What is the role of the epicuticle?
    Repels water and provides protection against dehydration.
  6. What component of the Crustacea shell makes it tougher?
    Calcium carbonate
  7. How do arthropods shed their exoskeleton?
    • 1. Reabsorbs the procuticle.
    • 2. Breaks out of the exoskeleton.
    • 3. Pumps itself up with air to make room for growth in the new shell.
    • 4. Excretes a new exoskeleton, and returns to its original size. (Ecdysis)
  8. What type of respiration do insects have?
    Tracheal system, ducts that carry air directly to cells.
  9. Do arthropods have an open or closed circulatory system?
  10. What sensory organs do arthropods have?
    Compound eyes sense movement and color.

    They can also sense hearing, touch, taste, smell and balance.
  11. What excretory system to arthropods have and how does it work?
    Malpigian tubules; solutes are pumped into a series of tubules, solutes and water are then reabsorbed leaving only the waste in the tubes to be excreted.
  12. What are the five subphyla of arthopoda?
    • Trilobita
    • Chelicerata
    • Myriapoda
    • Crustacea
    • Hexapoda
  13. What subphylum of arthropoda is extinct?
  14. What are the tagmata of the trilobita?
    • Head
    • Thorax
    • Pygidium
  15. What are the two classes of the subphylum myriapoda?
    • Chilopoda (1 pair of appendages)
    • Diplopoda (2 pairs of appendages)
  16. What subphylum and class are the centipedes in?
    • Subphylum: Myriapoda
    • Class: Chilopoda
  17. What subphylum and class are the millipedes in?
    • Subphylum: Myriapoda
    • Class: Diplopoda
  18. What subphylum and class are the horseshoe crabs in?
    • Subphylum: Chelicerata
    • Class: Merostomata
  19. What subphylum and class are the spiders in?
    • Subphylum: Chelicerata
    • Class: Arachnida
  20. What are the 6 appendages of a chelicerata?
    • First pair: Chelicerae (Food Handling)
    • Second pair: Pedipalps (Food Handling)
    • 4 walking legs
  21. What are chelicerae?
    The first pair of chelicerata appendages that handles food.
  22. What are pedipalps?
    The second pair of chelicerata appendages that handles food.
  23. How do spiders eat?
    By injecting venom and digestive juices with their fangs and sucking up digested tissues.
  24. How do horseshoe crabs eat?
    They use a roughened part of their legs called the gnathobase to grind their food, and stick it in their mouths.
  25. What is a gnathobase?
    The roughened part of a horseshoe crab's legs used for grinding up food.
  26. What subphylum are krill in?
  27. What subphylum are lobsters in?
  28. What subphylum are crabs in?
  29. What three appendages evolved in the hexapoda and crustacea not seen in the other subphyla of arthropoda?
    • Mandibles (Hardened mouthparts)
    • Antennae (Sensory for touch/taste)
    • Maxillae (Food handling)
  30. What covers the head region of the crayfish?
  31. What is a cheliped?
    The first pair of walking legs in crayfish modified for defense.
  32. How do crayfish move backwards?
    Tucking their uropod and telson under their bodies quickly.
    • A: Mandibles
    • B: Antenna
    • C: Anntenule
    • D: Walking legs
    • E: Swimmerets
    • F: Telson
    • G: Uropod
    • H: Cheliped
  33. What is the difference between male and female crayfish?
    The first pair of swimmerets in males is modified, called a copulatory swimmeret.
  34. What is a bailer?
    One of the crayfish maxillae moves constantly to keep a small flow of water over the gills when the crayfish is not moving.