Neuro Exam 2.7

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brau2308
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203417
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Neuro Exam 2.7
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2013-03-02 16:45:04
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neurology neuroanatomy neuroscience
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review of neuro lecture 7 for exam 2
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  1. What does the mesencephalon become?
    midbrain
  2. How many parts does the mesencephalon have?
    2
  3. What is the dorsal surface of the mesencephalon referred to as?
    tectum
  4. What is another name for the tectum of the mesencephalon?
    quadrigeminal plate
  5. What is the ventral portion of the mesencephalon called?
    cerebral peduncle
  6. The tectum is which part of the mesencephalon?
    dorsal aspect
  7. What makes up the tectum of the mesencephalon?
    4 round swellings called colliculi
  8. How many inferior colliculi are there?
    2
  9. Where are the inferior colliculi?
    • w/in brain (include cell bodies of neurons)
    • part of tectum of mesencephalon
  10. What pathway are the inferior colliculi involved with?
    auditory pathway and auditory reflexes
  11. What do the inferior colliculi do?
    • relay auditory info to medial geniculate body of thalamus
    • thalamus receives sensory info to send to cortex so we can hear
  12. What is the posterior side of the thalamus associated with?
    pulvinar nuclei
  13. R/L Brachium of inferior colliculi:
    lateral structure, contains neurons from inferior colliculi to medial geniculate body
  14. How many superior colliculi are there?
    2
  15. Where are the superior colliculi?
    w/in the brain
  16. What are the superior colliculi involved with?
    visual pathway and visual reflexes
  17. What do the superior colliculi do?
    relay visual info to lateral geniculate body of thalamus
  18. R/L Brachium of superior colliculi:
    contain neurons for communication b/w superior colliculi and LG body
  19. What does the tectum form?
    roof of cerebral aqueduct
  20. Where are most nuclei of the mesencephalon found?
    in cranial nerves
  21. What are the two main types of nuclei?
    • sensory
    • motor
  22. Where are cell bodies of the initial sensory neurons (1st order) located?
    in various ganglia of head and neck
  23. Where are the cell bodies of the 2nd order sensory neurons located?
    sensory nuclei of brain stem
  24. 1st order and 2nd order sensory neurons synapse where?
    somewhere in sensory nucleus
  25. What do the motor nuclei contain?
    cell bodies of LMN (alpha and gamma motor nuerons) which are going to exit via cranial nerves and innervate skeletal muscle fibers (extrafusal)--this goes back tot he neuromuscular junction
  26. Where are the cerebral peduncles of the mesencephalon?
    ventral structures
  27. Where are the cerebral peduncles in relationship to the cerebral aqueduct?
    ventral to cerebral aqueduct
  28. Are the cerebral peduncles a bilateral structure?
    yes
  29. What are the 3 major parts of the cerebral peduncles?
    • crus cerebri
    • tegmentum
    • substantia nigra
  30. Where is the crus cerebri?
    most ventral portion of peduncle
  31. What does the crus cerebri contain?
    corticofugal fibers
  32. Are corticofugal fibers motor or sensory?
    motor fibers
  33. Where is the tegmentum of the cerebral peduncles?
    most dorsal portion of peduncle
  34. What is the tegmentum?
    continuous elongated mass of gray matter extending from upper midbrain caudally through pons and medulla
  35. What does the tegmentum contain?
    cranial nerve nuclei and ascending sensory systems
  36. The tegmentum forms the floor of which structure?
    cerebral aqueduct
  37. What does the substantia nigra separate?
    crus cerebri from tegmentum
  38. What is the substantia nigra?
    area of gray matter involved w/ extrapyramidal system
  39. What disease does the substantia nigra deteriorate in?
    Parkinson's
  40. What are the structures of the tegmentum of the cerebral peduncle?
    • motor nucleus of trochlear nerve
    • tegmental nuclei
    • mesencephalic nucleus
    • oculomotor nuclear complex
    • Edinger-Westphal nucleus
    • red nucleus
    • retincular formation
    • descussation of superior cerebellar peduncles
    • lateral lemniscus
    • trigeminal lemniscus
    • medial lemniscus
    • spinal lemniscus
    • medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
  41. What cranial nerve is the motor nucleus of trochlear nerve associated w/?
    CN IV
  42. Where is the motor nucleus of trochlear nerve located?
    tegmentum
  43. What does the motor nucleus of trochlear nerve innervate?
    superior oblique extrinsic eye muscle
  44. Which cranial nerves are found in the midbrain?
    3 and 4
  45. Which cranial nerves are found in the pons?
    5-8
  46. Which cranial nerves are found in the medulla?
    9-12
  47. What is the tegmental nuclei?
    small diffuse nuclei
  48. Where is the tegmental nuclei?
    surrounding cerebral aqueduct
  49. The tegmental nuclei is part of which system?
    limbic system communication
  50. Which cranial nerve is the mesencephalic nucleus associated w/?
    CN V
  51. What is the mesencephalic nucleus?
    sensory nucleus that technically belongs to CN V (trigeminal)
  52. Where is the mesencephalic nucleus located?
    caudal midbrain and rostral pons
  53. What is the mesencephalic nucleus involved with?
    proprioceptive pathway of mm of mastication (head, neck, and face)
  54. What does the mesencephalic nucleus receive?
    sensory input from muscle spindles
  55. What is the exception of mesencephalic nucleus?
    contains cell bodies of 1st order sensory neurons
  56. Only cranial sensory cell bodies 1st order all from NS, normally from:
    ganglia
  57. Which cranial nerve is the oculomotor nuclear complex associated with?
    CN III
  58. How many nuclear structures does the oculomotor nuclear complex have w/in it?
    several
  59. Each extrinsic eye muscle is innervated by which CN?
    III
  60. What are the extrinsic eye muscle controlled by the oculomotor nuclear complex?
    • inferior oblique
    • medial rectus
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
  61. What other muscle does the oculomotor nuclear complex innervate?
    levator palpebral superioris
  62. Each eye muscle has its own:
    nucleus
  63. Which cranial nerve is associated w/ Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
    CN III
  64. What NS is involved with Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
    parasympathetic motor nucleus
  65. What type of neuron pathway is the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
    2 neuron pathway
  66. What is a 2 neuron pathway?
    pre communicate w/ postganglionic neurons
  67. What is the function of Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
    • causes pupilla sphincter muscle constriction (part of iris)
    • innervates ciliary body
  68. Where is the pupilla sphincter muscle?
    part of iris
  69. Miosis:
    pupil smaller
  70. Where is the ciliary body?
    surrounds lens of eye
  71. What does the ciliary body do w/ help of Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
    causes shape of lens to change (accommodation)
  72. What is the most conspicuous structure in the midbrain?
    red nucleus
  73. What is the red nucleus encapsulated by?
    connective tissue
  74. What was the red nucleus histologically?
    • oval column of cells, tube runs up and down
    • starts level superior colliculi, extends up into diencephalon
  75. The red nucleus is functionally part of:
    extrapyramidal system
  76. The red nucleus communicates w/ what structures as part of extrapyramidal system?
    • cerebellum
    • cerebral cortex
    • basal ganglia
    • spinal cord
  77. What happens if the red nucleus is damaged?
    causes various forms of involuntary skeletal muscle activity
  78. What makes up the reticular formation?
    diffuse small nuclei
  79. What does the reticular formation deal with?
    • sleep
    • consciousness
    • alertness
  80. What is the reticular formation involved with?
    • limbic activity
    • pain inhibition
    • refinement of motor activity
  81. What is the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles?
    three sets of peduncles that attach cerebellum to brain stem
  82. What are the three sets of peduncles of the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles?
    • superior
    • middle
    • inferior
  83. Where are the superior set of peduncles?
    attach cerebellum to midbrain
  84. Where are the middle set of peduncles?
    attach cerebellum to pons
  85. Where are the inferior set of punduncles?
    attach cerebellum to medulla
  86. peduncles have information that cross over in the:
    tegmentum of midbrain
  87. What are the lateral lemniscus?
    collection of axons (ascending)
  88. The lateral lemniscus is part of what pathways?
    • ascending sensory pathway
    • auditory pathway
  89. What does the lateral lemniscus contain?
    2nd and 3rd order sensory neurons
  90. Is the trigeminal lemniscus ascending or descending?
    ascending
  91. The trigeminal lemniscus is part of:
    ascending general sensation pathway of head and neck
  92. What does the trigeminal lemniscus contain?
    2nd order sensory neurons
  93. Which cranial nerve does the trigeminal lemniscus belong to?
    CN V
  94. Is the medial lemniscus ascending or descending?
    ascending
  95. The medial lemniscus is part of:
    ascending dorsal column pathway
  96. What does the medial lemniscus contain?
    2nd order sensory neurons
  97. Where do the 2nd order sensory neurons of the medial lemniscus originate?
    in nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilus
  98. What is the medial lemniscus involved with?
    • conscious proprioception
    • fine touch
    • 2 point discrimination
    • discriminative touch
  99. the medial lemniscus is part of:
    pathway of which this involvement will ascend
  100. What does damage to the medial lemniscus do?
    damages dorsal column pathway
  101. Is the spinal lemniscus ascending or descending?
    ascending
  102. What is the spinal lemniscus?
    collection of 2nd order sensory neurons of spinothalamic pathway
  103. What does the spinothalamic pathway do?
    • conduction of:
    • pain
    • temperature
    • proprioception
    • crude touch
  104. What type of pathways does the medial longitudinal fasciculus have?
    • ascending sensory pathways
    • descending pathways
  105. What do the ascending sensory pathways of the medial longitudinal fasciculus control?
    eyeball movement
  106. What are the descending pathways of the medial longitudinal fasciculus involved with?
    equilibrium reflexes
  107. What are the 3 major descending pathways of the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
    • tectospinal tract
    • reticulospinal pathway
    • medial vestibulospinal tract
  108. Where is the tectospinal tract?
    tectum of midbrain
  109. The tectospinal tract descends through what, towards what?
    descends through MLF towards spinal cord
  110. What is contained in the tectospinal tract?
    auditory and visual reflexes
  111. Where is the reticulospinal pathway?
    reticular formation through spinal cord
  112. What is contained in the reticulospinal pathway?
    motor activities
  113. Where is the medial vestibulospinal tract?
    vestivular system toward spinal cord
  114. What is contained in the medial vestibulospinal tract?
    skeletal muscle reflexes
  115. What type of matter makes up the substantia nigra of the cerebral peduncle?
    gray matter (cell bodies of neurons)
  116. Where is the substantia nigra located?
    b/w crus cerebri and tegmentum
  117. Where does the substantia nigra extend to?
    full length of midbrain
  118. Which system is the substantia nigra a part of?
    extrapyramidal system
  119. What is the extrapyramidal system involved with?
    inoluntary skeletal muscle activity
  120. What does the substantia nigra do?
    communicates w/ basal ganglia (dopamine transported to basal ganglia through projection neurons)
  121. What disease is associated w/ the substantia nigra?
    Parkinson's disease
  122. Where is the crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle?
    most ventral portion of peduncle
  123. What does the crus cerebri contain?
    corticofugla fibers (UMN)
  124. Is the crus cerebri a motor or sensory structure?
    motor
  125. What do the corticofugal fibers (UMN) synapse with?
    LMN of brain stem (motor nuclei of CNs) or ventral horns of spinal cord.
  126. What do the LMN do?
    tell skeletal muscle what to do at NMJ
  127. How is the crus cerebri organized?
    somatotopically
  128. How is the crus cerebri sectioned?
    • lateral third
    • middle third
    • medial third
  129. Which of the thirds of the crus cerebri is further divided into three sections itself?
    middle
  130. Somatotopic organization of middle 3rd of crus cerebri:
    Lateral 3rd of middle 3rd:
    corticospinal going to LMN of skeletal muscle of lower extremities (paralysis occurs here if lesion)
  131. Somatotopic organization of Crus cerebri:
    Middle 3rd of middle 3rd:
    corticospinal fibers on way to LMN innervate skeletal muscle of upper extremities
  132. Somatotopic organization of crus cerebri:
    medial 3rd of middle 3rd:
    corticobulbar fibers on way to motor nuclei of CN w/ motor functions
  133. Somatotopic organization of crus cerebri:
    Lateral 3rd:
    • occipitaltemporal pontine fibers
    • occipital pontine: occipital lobe to pons
    • temporal pontine: temporal lobe to pons
  134. Somatotopic organization of crus cerebri:
    Medial 3rd:
    Frontopontine fibers: frontal lobe to pons (pass through middle 3rd of crus cerebri)
  135. Which CNs are associated w/ the midbrain?
    3 and 4
  136. Which CNs are associated w/ the pons?
    5-8
  137. Which CNs are associated with the medulla?
    9-12

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