4. Asking for clarification to providestudents with the opportunity todevelop communication skills
5. Promoting conversations among children
6. Providing feedback to let
children know they have been heard and understood, and providing
further explanation when needed
What is decoding?
Decoding is the method or strategy used to make sense of printed words and figure out how to correctly pronounce them.
What should a child correspond in order to read?
Letters and sounds.
Sounds of speech.
Words are composed of?
Letters and have meaning.
In order to be appropriately prepared to learn to read and write, a child should learn:
1. That there are 26 letters in the alphabet.
2. Each letter is distinct in appearance.
3. The direction and shape used to form each letter.
4. Each letter has a name that can be associated with the shape of the letter.
5. The letters are grouped together in a certain order.
Benefits of print and book awareness are?
That a book has a title, a cover, a title page, and a table of contents. An author, contains a story, and illustrations can carry meaning.
That letters and words are different, and words and sentences are separated by spaces and punctuation.
Print and book awareness helps with?
1. There is a connection between print and messages contained in signs, labels, etc.
2. Reading and writing are ways to obtain information and communicate ideas
3. Print runs from left to right and from top to bottom
Big books can be used for?
1. Point out features of print, such as specific letters and punctuation
2. Track print from right to left
3. Emphasize the concept of word sand the fact that they are used to communicate
Graphic organizers such as KWL charts or story road maps can be used for?
1. Remind students about what was read and discussed
2. Expand on the lesson topic or the me
3. Show the relationships among books, ideas, and words
A teacher can provide a print-rich environment in the classroom by displaying?
1. Children's names in print or cursive
2. Children's written work
3. Newspapers and magazines
4. Instructional charts
5. Written schedules
6. Signs and labels
7. Printed songs, poems, and rhymes
A teacher can assist a child's language development by?
Building on what the child already knows,discussing relevant and meaningful events and experiences, teaching vocabulary and literacy skills, and providing opportunities to acquire more complex language.
How is written language acquired?
Written language development can occur without direct instruction. In fact, reading and writing do not necessarily need to be taught through formal lessons if the child is exposed to a print-rich environment.
How is oral language acquired?
Oral language development does not occur naturally, but does occur in a social context. This means it is best to include children in conversations rather than simply talk at them.
How does oral and written language develop?
Oral and written language develops simultaneously. The acquisition of skills in one area supports the acquisition of skills in the other.
How can teachers assist language development?
1. Modeling enriched vocabulary and teaching new words
2. Using questions and examples to extend a child's descriptive language skills
3. Providing ample response time to encourage children to practice speech
How do children learn language?
1. Children learn language through interacting with others
2. By experiencing language in daily and relevant context
3. Through understanding that speaking and listening are necessary for effective communication.
What is the alphabetic principle?
The alphabetic principle refers to the use of letters and combinations of letters to represent speech sounds.
Techniques to teach phonological awareness are?
8. Reading alliterative texts out loud
9. Grouping objects by beginning sounds
10. Reordering words in a well known sentence or making silly phrases by deleting words from a well-known sentence (perhaps from a favorite storybook)
Techniques to teach phonological awareness are?
4. Reading poems, songs, and nursery rhymes out loud
5. Reading patterned and predictable texts out loud
6. Listening to environmental sounds or following verbal directions
7. Playing games with rhyming chants or finger plays
Techniques to teach phonological awareness are?
1. Clapping to the sounds of individual words, names, or all words in a sentence.
2. Practicing saying blended phonemes
3. Singing songs that involve phoneme replacement (e.g., The Name Game)
What are onset sounds?
The sounds at the beginning of words and rime the same thing as rhyme, but spelled differently to distinguish syllable rime from poetic rhyme.
What are Phonemes?
Phonemes are the sounds represented by the letters in the alphabet. The ability to separate, blend,and manipulate sounds is critical to developing reading and spelling skills.
What is phonological awareness?
Phonological awareness is the ability to perceive sound structures in a spoken word, such as syllables and the individual phonemes within syllables.
What are subsets of reading literacy?
Phonological awareness, decoding,comprehension, and vocabulary.
Difference between reading and writing literacy?
While reading literacy may be gauged simply by the ability to read a newspaper,writing literacy includes spelling,grammar, and sentence structure.
UNESCO definition of literacy?
The "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create,communicate, compute, and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts."
What is literacy?
Literacy is commonly understood to refer to the ability to read and write.
Common rhyme patterns in poems are?
The Spenserian stanza, which has a rhyme pattern of a b a b b c b c c, is an example.
Stanzas of a certain length also have names: The couplet,which has two lines; the tercet, which has three lines; and the quatrain, which has four lines.
The stanza structure in a poem is?
A stanza is a group of lines. The grouping denotes a relationship among the lines. A stanza can be any length, but the separation of lines into different stanzas indicates an intentional pattern created by the poet.
What is the line structure in poetry?
A line of poetry can be any length and can have any metrical pattern. A line is determined by the physical position of words on a page. A line is simply a group of words on a single line.
Role of emotions in poetry?
Poetry is designed to appeal to the physical and emotional senses.
What is secondary research?
Secondary research material is anything that is not primary. Secondary sources are those things that are written or otherwise recorded about the main subject.
What is primary research?
Primary research material is material that comes from the "horse's mouth." It is a document or object that was created by the person under study or during the time period under study.
What is a short story?
A short story is prose fiction that has the same elements as a novel, such as plot,characters, and point of view.
What is Free Verse?
Free verse lacks regular patterns of poetic feet, but has more controlled rhythm than prose in terms of pace and pauses. Free verse has no rhyme and is usually written in short lines of irregular length.
What is blank verse?
Blank verse is unrhymed verse that consists of lines of iambic pentameter,which is five feet (sets) of unstressed and stressed syllables. The rhythm that results is the closest to natural human speech.
Additional common types of meter are?
• Dactylic – A stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
• Spondaic – Two consecutive syllables that are stressed almost equally
• Pyrrhic – Two consecutive syllables that are equally unstressed
Common types of meter are?
• Iambic – An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
• Anapestic – Two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
• Trochaic – One stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
What is a Meter?
A recurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in language creates a rhythm when spoken. When the pattern is regular, it is called meter. When meter is used in a composition, it is called verse.
What is Onomatopeia?
Onomatopoeia refers to words that imitate sounds. It is sometimes called echoism. Examples are hiss, buzz, burp,rattle, and pop. It may also refer to words that correspond symbolically to what they describe, with high tones suggesting light and low tones suggesting darkness.
What is Assonance?
Assonance is the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, particularly in stressed syllables, in words in close proximity. Assonance is considered to be a form of near rhyme.
What is Alliteration?
Alliteration is the repetition of the first sounds or stressed syllables (usually consonants) in words in close proximity.An example is: "Chirp, chirp," said the chickadee.
Common points of view are?
Third person – Third person points of view include omniscient (knows everything) and limited to a single character or a limited number of characters.
First person – When this point of view is used, the narrator refers to himself or herself as "I."
What is a point of view?
Point of view is the angle from which a story is told.
What is tone?
Tone is the attitude of the writer or narrator towards the theme of, subject of,or characters in a work. Sometimes the attitude is stated, but it is most often implied through word choices.
Style is affected by?
• Diction or word choices
• Sentence structure and syntax
• Types and extent of use of figurative language
• Patterns of rhythm or sound
• Conventional or creative use of punctuation
What is style?
Style is the manner in which a writer uses language in prose or poetry
What is non-fiction?
Nonfiction is a literary work that is based on facts.
What is fiction?
Fiction is a literary work usually presented in prose form that is not true.
What is poetry or verse?
Poetry, or verse, is the manipulation of language with respect to meaning, meter,sound, and rhythm.
Distinct characteristics of prose?
1. It may have some sort of rhythm,but there is no formal arrangement.
2. The common unit of organization is the sentence.It may include literary devices of repetition and balance.
3. It must have more coherent relationships among sentences than a list would.
What is Prose?
Prose is language as it is ordinarily spoken as opposed to verse or language with metric patterns.