Arch 112 Post Midterm 1

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jaz584
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Arch 112 Post Midterm 1
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2013-03-05 19:19:22
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Arch 112
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Lectures from after midterm 1
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  1. Pleistocene Epoch
    • -1.8-.01 MYA 
    • -overall drop in temp with extensive fluctuation during last 700,000 years
    • -includes glacial and interglacial periods
  2. Archaic Homo Sapiens
    • -also called premodern or transitional homo sapiens
    • -600-100 KYA
    • -oldest specimens in africa
    • -cranial capacity of 1250cc (85-90% human capacity)
    • -decline in robusticity compared to homo erectus
    • -cranium widest at parietal region rather than base
  3. Archaic Homo Sapiens Recovered
    • -broken hill skull found in zambia was used to introduce concept that black people were less evolved
    • -skulls found in greece and china as well
  4. Neanderthals
    • -found mostly in western eurasia 
    • -130-30 KYA
    • -large cranial capacity of 1500cc
    • -large face with wide cheeks
    • -had large nasal area presumably to warm air as it was inhaled
    • -large supraorbital tori(brow ridges)
    • -long, low cranium and sloping forehead
    • -maximum width at parietal region(topish area of head)
    • -receding chin, robust mandible(jaw)
  5. Postcranial Neanderthals
    • -robust and muscular
    • -large joint surfaces
    • -short distal limb bones compared to proximal ones (keep mass towards center of body for warmth)
    • -thick ribs with barrel chests
  6. Distribution of Neanderthals
    • -throughout europe and western asia
    • -NOT africa or south or east asia
    • -share some traits with archaic homo sapiens found in same regions
  7. Neanderthal Climate
    • -lived during maximum glaciation 
    • -areas south of glaciers were frigid grasslands with loess dunes and lots of megafauna
  8. Homo Floresiensis
    • -discovered only on island of Flores indonesia
    • -38-18 KYA
    • -less than 1m tall 
    • -400cc cranial capacity
    • -either insular dwarfism of some sort of disease
    • -associated with stone tools
    • -thought to be more primitive than Erectus
  9. Denisovans
    • -siberias Altai mountains only
    • -identified only from DNA from two teeth
    • -diverged from humans 700-170 KYA and contributed to genetics of people in SE asia
    • -low genetic diversity
  10. Red Deer Cave People
    • -Longlin Cave, China
    • -14.3-11.5 KYA
    • -unique blend of modern and primitive features
    • -MODERN:rounded brain case with modern frontal lobes, short flat face, cranial capacity
    • -ANCESTRAL:prominent brow ridges, thick skull, primitive parietal lobes, large molars, broad noses, jutting jaws
  11. Genus Homo
    • -50 KYA there were 5 distinct members of genus
    • -modern humans, Denisovans, Neanderthals, Red deer cave people, Homo Erectus, Homo Floresiensis
  12. Paleolithic Stone Age
    • -"old stone age"
    • Lower Paleolithic
    • -2.5-.3 MYA
    • -associated with both olduwan(Homo Habilis) and acheulian(homo erectus) stone tool industries
    • Middle Paleolithic 
    • -300-50 KYA
    • -mousterian (archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals) stone tools
    • Upper Paleolithic 
    • -started 50 KYA
  13. Mousterian Tool Industry
    • -similar to acheulian, but with more refinement
    • -200-40 KYA
    • -characterized by retouched flake technology
  14. Levallois Technique
    -specialized technique involving preparing a core that will consistently produce a desired flake pattern (making spear points)
  15. Big Game Hunting
    • -sites date to 250 KYA
    • -archaic humans and H. Erectus
    • -used buffalo runs
    • -long wooden spears (400 KYA)
  16. Compassion
    • -evidence from healed severe injuries, man with paralyzed partially amputated right arm and blind, yet he did not die from his injuries
    • -old man with arthritis and no teeth found
    • -ceremonial burial of dead, fetal position and wild flowers
  17. Neanderthal Culture
    • -had pendants and make up
    • -possible evidence of early art
    • -music flute found
    • -could possibly speak, had nearly identical hyoid bone to modern humans, likely not as advanced though, lacked quantal hallmark to distinguish between beat and bit (like aussies)
  18. Anatomically Modern Humans
    • -first in Africa 200-100 KYA
    • -small face
    • -protruding chin
    • -rounded cranium with sharply rising forehead
    • -greatly reduced brow ridges
    • -smaller teeth
    • -more gracile skeleton
  19. Replacement Hypothesis
    • -modern humans evolved out of africa and COMPLETELY replaced all other hominids when colonizing the world
    • -belief that humans are all the same species today is a result of recent common ancestry
  20. Multiregional Hypothesis
    • -modern humans evolved from all archaic predecessors throughout Eurasia and we are all a single species now through gene flow(everyone was interbreeding with each other)
    • -last common ancestor was member of homo erectus
  21. Hybridization Hypothesis
    • -middle ground between replacement and multiregional hypotheses 
    • -believes neanderthals did interbreed with modern humans, but were simply abosorbed by larger modern human populations
    • -doesn't believe in gene flow throughout central and eastern eurasia
  22. Evidence of Modern Humans in Africa
    • -intermediate forms between archaic and modern humans
    • -Herto, Ethiopia 160 KYA
    • --widely splaced orbits(eye sockets)
    • --long and high cranium with large capacity, 1450cc
    • -Omo 1, Ethiopia 195 KYA
    • --fragmented, but appears completely modern, although it is older
  23. Evidence of Modern Humans in Europe
    • -earliest evidence in Europe dates to 45-42 KYA (italy, england)
    • -Cro-Magnon is the type site for early anatomically modern humans
    • -large rounded cranium (1600cc)
    • -short broad faces with narrow noses and reduced brow ridges
    • -Mladec, Czech Republic
    • -33 KYA
    • -modern humans discovered which have neanderthal traits (long, low cranium and large brow ridges)
    • -Portugal, 25 KYA
    • -4 yr old child with modern skull, but robust(neanderthal like) skeleton
  24. Evidence of Modern Humans in Western Asia
    -skulls found in Israel of show evidence of hybridiaztion
  25. Evidence of Modern Humans in East Asia
    • -Liujiang China 100-60 KYA
    • -earliest modern human discovered in east Asia
    • -large cranium, small face and brow ridges
    • -regional continuity is present in the area until present day; shovel shaped incisors, additional cranial structures
  26. Genetic Evidence
    • -humans share 99.7% of DNA with neanderthals
    • -significantly closer related to NON africans, which supports the out of africa theory
  27. Paleolithic
    • -lower paleolithic-2.5MYA and associated with olduwan and acheulian tools
    • -middle paleolithic-300KYA associated with mousterian tools
    • -upper paleolithic-50KYA lots of advancements
  28. Blades vs Flakes
    • -innovation of upper paleolithic
    • -blades must be twice as long as they are wide
    • -provided up to 5x more usable edge from same amount of stone
    • -50KYA in africa
    • -35KYA in europe
    • -microblades were components of composite tools after 16KYA
  29. 8 Cultural Innovations of Upper Paleolithic
    • 1-blades over flakes
    • 2-broader subsistence base
    • --hunted lots of different animals (fish, birds, smaller mammals) 
    • --plants for food and other purposes 
    • 3-increased use of non stone(lithic) material
    • --use of bone, ivory, antler and wood to create needles, awls, harpoons, shaft straighteners, fish hooks, spear head and support for dwellings
    • 4-increased use of non utilitarian items for personal adornment (possible growing self awareness)
    • 5-larger and less moving settlements
    • --extensively used and revisited seasonally
    • 6-long distance trade
    • --raw materials traded as far 500km from source
    • 7-elaborate burials
    • --repetitive body positioning and grave goods
    • 8-first concrete evidence of art
    • --paintings, etchings and sculpture
  30. European Cave Art
    • -hundreds of sites known mostly throughout northern spain and southwest france
    • -32-10KYA (last glacial max)
    • -depict animals generally for eating
    • -often of female sex organs
  31. Venus Figurines
    • -28-22KYA
    • -clay,carved stone, limestone and ivory female "venus" figures
    • -generally faceless and with exaggerated sexual features
    • -possible mother goddess or fertility worship
    • -possible self portraits
    • --oldest figurine discovered is 40-35KYA 
    • --roughly 5KYA older than any other
    • --carved out of mammoth ivory
    • --discovered in SW germany
    • --dubbed the prehistoric pinup because sexual features are so overly exaggerated
  32. Peopling of the Americas
    -facilitated by large drops in sea level and technological advancements
  33. The Americas
    • -last glacial period (the Wisconsin) peaked between 25-14 KYA
    • -two major ice sheets Laurentide(covering from Saskish and east) and Cordilleran(covering from alberta and west)
    • -ice free corridor likely existed in Alberta but unlikely to have been continuous or passable
    • -south of the ice sheets the climate was cooler with less drastic changes than modern day
  34. Beringia
    • -large land mass connecting western Americas with Eastern Russia
    • -stretched roughly 2000km from 80-14KYA
    • -treeless landscape supporting abundant and diverse fauna, including 7 large herbivore species
  35. Tundra vs Mammoth Steppes
    • -todays tundra has permafrost close to surface which creates a cold, waterlogged acidic soil, results in low nutrients for grazing vegetation
    • -Mammoth steppes(Beringia)-low snow cover and permafrost deeper in ground allowing well drained fertile soil. Promoted deep rooted grazing vegetation, high nutrient turnover
  36. First Beringians
    • -widespread occupation between 18-13KYA
    • -evidence of bifacial spear points, musk ox and mammoth bones, burins, microblades and wedge shaped cores
  37. Clovis First Hypothesis
    • -rapid expansion of big game hunters who moved south from Beringia following the glacial retreat after 14KYA
    • -focuses on the belief of the peopling as an EVENT
  38. Clovis Culture
    • -type site of Clovis new mexico
    • -discovered in 1932
    • -characterized by big game hunting using large fluted points hafted onto wooden spear shafts
    • -clovis spear points found all across the american plains, but NOT in beringia
  39. Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
    • -14KYA glaciers retreated 
    • -during this time 75% of large mammalian genera in NA went extinct about 80 species
    • -theory proposes that hunters populated the americas by following the diminishing mammals south
    • -theory requires rapid expansion from alaska to SA in 1000 years
    • -essentially disproved because megafauna extinction did not happen in synch
  40. Pre-Clovis Hypothesis
    -expansion during the Wisconsin period of foraging people who spread through a PROCESS and populated the new world
  41. Migration Routes to the Americas
    • -from Beringia down through the ice free corridor, however it was likely at least partially obstructed and not easily habitable 
    • -coastal route-required ice free refugia and sophisticated technology(watercraft, harpoons, fishing gear etc) since most of the then coast is now underwater it is difficult to support archeology
  42. Pre-Clovis Sites
    • -meadowcraft PA 19-14KYA
    • -Cactus Hill VA 22-18KYA
    • -did not have fluted spearheads 
    • --monte Verde Chile 15-12.5KYA
    • --exceptionally well preserved showing at least 13 huts and 85 plant species
  43. Linguistics in the New World
    • -three major migration waves
    • 1-aleut Eskimo 4-6KYA
    • 2-Na-Dene 9-14KYA
    • 3-amerind 14-25 KYA
    • -closest genetically to modern northeast asians
  44. Western Eurasia in late Pleistocene
    • -45-15KYA
    • -human populations expanded and colonized 3 previously uninhabited continents NA, SA, and australia 
    • -open steppe tundra was expanding to siberia
    • -required technology to make tailored clothing, awls and thongs
    • -ability to make substantial shelter WITHOUT trees
    • -small groups hunted big game in river valleys
    • -mammoth bone huts up to 4.8m in diameter
    • -occupied by 30-60 people for up to 6 months a year
    • -up to 100 mammoths needed to make one hut
    • -took 150 total construction days
  45. Eastern Eurasia in Late Pleistocene
    • -35-15KYA
    • -process of moving into eastern asia began 40 KYA
    • -low population density
    • -earliest development of micro blades
    • -"base camp" sites found with semi subterranean houses built from animal bones and antlers
    • -intricate carvings mostly of women and birds
    • -occupied western beringia as early as 27KYA hunting mammoth and wild horse
  46. Near East (mediterranean) in Late Pleistocene
    • -cold and dry everywhere else, here it was wet and thickly forested
    • -hunted animals, but also ate wild plants
    • -first grinding tools found 45KYA
    • -tool kit comprised mostly of small blades(micro blades and bladelets
    • -often had composite tools
    • -mediterranean had a "fertile crescent" that arced across the middle east
  47. Natufian Culture
    • -near east(mediterranean) 45-12KYA
    • -characterized by crescent shaped bladelets(lunates-crescent shaped)
    • -had ground stone implements
    • -transition to complex foraging with intensive resource use and food storage 
    • -permanent settlements
    • -stone walled structures
    • -burials common under the living floor
    • -widespread use of plant foods, but not domesticated yet
    • -focus on hunting of gazelles 
    • -some evidence of tamed wolves
  48. Early Holocene
    • -age we currently live in 
    • -warming climatic conditions and megafauna extinction (7/23 went extinct)
    • -shift in hunting to reflect changing resources
    • -HUGE diversity in strategy(in Italy 30 miles from coast they hunted purely terrestrial species)
    • -increased sedentism
    • -MESOLITHIC cultural period (after paleolithic and before Neolithic)
  49. Mesolithic in Europe
    • -12-5KYA
    • -wide array of food, marine animals, birds, shellfish, water lilies etc
    • -many coastal sites are now underwater
    • -huge diversity among cultures
    • -less long distance trading, more short distacne trading
    • -canoe and bow and arrow 9-8KYA
    • -wolf domestication
  50. Mesolithic in East Asia
    • -11-7KYA
    • -blade and flake industry in China's northern forests
    • -microblade industry along waterways of mongolia's steppe dessert(less hunting, more fishing and eggs)
    • -less changes in south from Paleolithic
  51. Mesolithic in Africa
    • -100-8KYA
    • -Ibero-maurusian culture 16-10KYA small stone blades
    • -Capsian culture 10-6KYA similar toolkit, but possible evidence by new migrants from the east
  52. Food Production
    • -started after 12KYA
    • -gradual shift
  53. Neolithic
    • -cultural period characterized by
    • 1-plant and animal domestication
    • 2-ground stone technology
    • 3-increased sedentism
  54. Domestication
    • -process of artificially selecting for desirable traits in animals or plants to change the form or function to be more useful
    • -many domesticated species have changed so much they cannot survive without human intervention
    • -evidence is mostly from the abrupt appearance of plant or animal remains in areas where they do not occur or live naturally
  55. Artificial Selection in Animals
    • -mostly shown by abundance of young male bones present
    • -young males killed/eaten because they were hardest to tend(most agressive) and only a few males were needed to maintain a herd, females also provided milk
    • -selection for smaller and more docile animals
    • -osteological(anatomical) changes-decrease in density of muscularity reflecting reduced activity levels
    • -pathology-animals used for burden may show signs of work, arthritis from weight, wear on teeth from bit etc
  56. Artificial Selection in Plants
    • -substantial increase in seed size created by selecting for plants that always produce larger seeds
    • -selection of plants where seeds always ripen at same time
    • -morphology of plants changed, seed coat thickness significantly reduced
    • -increase in selection for seeds that had non brittle rachises(stems) so that they would not lose half the seeds during harvesting
  57. Domestication of Dog
    • -as early as 36KYA from wolves
    • -from grey wolf
    • -common ancestor of dogs is 18ishKYA
    • -four theories
    • 1-orphaned pups
    • 2-promise of food-wolves kept coming around humans because of possibly being fed (self domestication)
    • 3-beasts of burden
    • 4-sources of food and fur
  58. Domestication of Plant and Animal Theories
    • 1-oasis hypothesis-theory that dry holocene conditions forced people to settle around oases (disproven when it was discovered that the holocene was warm and wet)
    • 2-sedentary hypothesis-people settled in low risk high resource areas and accidentally domesticated things over time
    • 3-readiness hypothesis-accumulated knowledge of plants and animals that were open to guided change
    • 4-dump heap hypothesis-plant domestication emerged when people realized that plants flourished in areas that used to be garbage dumps from human occupation
    • 5-co-evolution hypothesis-plants and animals evolved with humans in a symbiotic relationship, agriculture was a natural continuance
    • 6-demographic hypothesis-growing populations allowed and required more intensive strategies for survival
    • 7-marginal habitat hypothesis-population growth forced movement into less than ideal environments that required intensive cultivation for survival
    • 8-sedentism- shift towards less movement of populations led to less naturally occurring resources, forcing the cultivation of plants and animals
  59. Carrying capacity
    -for a given species the maximum number of individuals that a habitat can continually support
  60. Deviation Amplification
    -small cultural changes can have exponential consequences when applied large scale
  61. Consequences of Food Production
    • -dependence on much fewer species of plants and animals=less variety in diet and poorer nutrition
    • -significant dependence on harvest time for year round resources
    • -larger populations paired with poor food storage led to increased infectious disease
    • -more physically demanding to farm compared to hunting
  62. Agricultural Innovation
    -developed independently in at least 7 different areas
  63. Agriculture in Asia and the Near East
    • -Natufian culture-15-12KYA reliance on cereal crops, barley, wheat and legumes
    • -the cooler and drier time period, younger dryas stadial, likely decreased the abundance of wild crops available 
    • -later natufian sites show some evidence of steps towards domestication
  64. Agriculture in Southwest Asia
    -early neolithic
  65. 12-8.5 KYA
    • -domesticated barley in Israel and Iran by 11KYA
    • -domesticated wheat and legumes in turkey and syria by 10KYA
    • -Iran and Iraq domesticated sheep and goats 10.6-10KYA
    • -evidence for cattle and dairying by 8.5KYA
    • -shift from bladelets to blade tools(arrowheads and sicles)
    • -ground stone tools
    • -plaster(made from burning of limestone)
    • -first evidence of communal structures 
    • -tower at jericho built and destroyed around 12KYA
    • -tower took 10-15 thousand working days
    • -possible birth of the gods
  66. Agriculture in Southwest Asia in Late Neolithic
    • -8.5-7KYA
    • -development of crude pottery(not fired in high heat kiln or on potters wheel)
    • -abandonment of plaster(running out of trees to burn limestone?)
    • -sharp decline in number of settlements and abandonment of large sites(possible ecological degradation)
    • -shift in symbolic artifacts from skulls to small human figurines
    • -domestication of goats continued and decline of hunter gatherers continued
    • -Catalhoyuk Turkey 9-8KYA dense village throughout late neolithic(exception to trend) goddess cult with ritual rooms, reliance on goats but emphasis on bulls, pop of between 3-6 thousand
  67. Agriculture in Africa
    • -no single center of development
    • -evidence of wild plant reliance in egypt during late Pleistocene 
    • -7KYA early farmers lived along nile and introduced sheep, goats, cattle, barley, emmer, lentils, chickpeas and flax
    • -independent domestication of aurochs into cattle 10KYA
    • -donkeys domesticated at least twice about 5KYA
    • -different species of millet domesticated throughout africa
  68. Asia/China Agriculture
    • -rice domestication by 12KYA
    • -pig domestication by 10 KYA
    • -yellow river had both hunting/fishing in addition to food production
    • -yellow river had larger more structured self contained farming communities by 7-5KYA all built on terraces for protection from yearly floods
  69. Southeast Asia/Japan Agriculture
    • -intensive plant use by 12KYA
    • -full agriculture by 6KYA
    • -almonds, soy, beans, cucumbers
  70. European Agriculture
    • -greece had reliance on wild plants by 13KYA, domesticated wheat by 8KYA
    • -ALL domesticates appear to be introduced rather than domesticated independently

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