Research: Inquiry aimed at advancing knowledge and sharing it through professional meetings and journal articles
Teaching: Teaching university courses in either psychology or exercise and sport science
Consulting: Working with athletes of all ages and abilities in the fitness industry and in sports medicine and physical therapy
Father of American psychology
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Cycling experiment to enhance metal performance
Maintainthe highest standards in your work and recognize the limits of your expertise.
•The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique•
The structure of personality
Approaches toUnderstanding Personality
•Behavior is determined by several unconscious, constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another
.•Emphasis is placed on understanding the person as a whole rather than identifying isolated traits.
sigman floyd most popular approch
•Behavior is determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality
.These traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation
•Perfectionism has been one of the most widely studied personality characteristics in sport psychology in recent years.
Perfectionism is a multidimensional construct that consists of various components, including setting high standards, feeling concern over mistakes, and being highly organized.
•Depending on the specific components characterizing one’s perfectionistic personality, perfectionism can lead to both highly positive and extremely negative consequences (maladaptive versus adaptive perfectionism).
•Behavior is determined largely by the situation or environment.
•The situation is a more important determinant of behavior than particular personality traits.
•The situational approach is not as widely embraced by most sport psychologists.
•Behavior is determined by both the person and the situational factors as well as by their interaction.
•The majority of contemporary sport and exercise psychologists favor the interactional approach.
most popular approch
•Behavior is best determined by accounting for situational and personal characteristics
.•A person’s understanding and interpretation of one’s self and environment are critical.
•The phenomenological view is often stressed by today’s sport psychologists.
is atypical style of behavior
•is the situation’s effect on behavior—a “right now” feeling that can change from moment to moment.
Dos in Personality Testing
•DO inform participants about the purpose of the personality test and exactly how it will be used.
•DO allow only qualified individuals who have an understanding of testing principles and measurement error to give personality tests.
•DO integrate personality test results with other information obtained about the participant.
•DO use sport- and exercise-specific tests whenever possible, giving them in consultation with a sport psychologist.
•DO use both state and trait measures of personality.
•DO provide participants with specific feedback concerning the results of the test.
•DO compare individuals against their own baseline levels rather than against normative information.
Don’ts in PersonalityTesting
•DON’T use clinical personality tests that focus on abnormality to study an average population of sport and exercise participants.
•DON’T use personality tests to decide who makes a team or program and who doesn’t.
•DON’T give or interpret personality tests unless you are qualified to do so by the APA or another certifying organization.
•DON’T use personality tests to predict behavior in sport and exercise settings without considering other sources of information.
profile of mood
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Type A behavior patterns
•(particularly the anger–hostility component) are associated with cardiovascular disease and appear to be altered via exercise
.Exercise and increased fitness appear to be associated with increases in self-esteem especially in individuals with low self-esteem
•Consider both personality traits and situations.
•Be an informed consumer.
•Be a good communicator.
•Be a good observer.
•Be knowledgeable about mental strategies.
•is the direction and intensity of effort.
–Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations.
–Intensity of effort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.
Views of Motivation
•Participant- or trait-centered view
How to IdentifyParticipant Motives
•Talk informally to others
.Ask participants directly
is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face offailure, and experience pride in accomplishments
•Attributions: How people explain their successes and failures
•Examples include the following:
–Locus of causality
–Locus of control
Achievement Goal Theory
•Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): Comparing performance with and defeating others.
•Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances.
•Social goal orientation: Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others.
Keys of Achievement GoalTheory
•Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals.
•Foster mastery or task motivational climates.
Stages of DevelopingAchievement Motivation and Competitiveness
•Autonomous competence stage
•Social comparison stage
•Integrated (self- and social-comparison) stage
is the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards
Appointedor prescribed leaders
areindividuals appointed by some authority to a leadership position (e.g., healthclub manager, coach, head athletic trainer).
areindividuals who emerge from a group and take charge (e.g., captain of anintramural team, student leader of an exercise class).
Behavioral Guidelines for coaches
–Do provide reinforcement immediately after positive behaviors and reinforce effort as much as results.
Do give encouragement and corrective instruction immediately after mistakes. Emphasize what the athlete did well, not what the athlete did poorly
–Don’t punish when athletes make a mistake. Fear of failure is reduced if you work to reduce fear of punishment.
–Don’t give corrective feedback in a hostile, demeaning, or harsh manner; that is likely to increase frustration and build resentment.–Do maintain order by establishing clear expectations. Use positive reinforcement to strengthen the correct behaviors rather than punishment of incorrect behaviors.
–Don’t get into the position of having to constantly nag or threaten athletes to prevent chaos.
–Do use encouragement selectively so that it is meaningful. Encourage effort but don’t demand results.
Do provide technical instruction in a clear, concise manner and demonstrate how to perform the skill whenever possible
•Effective leaders have integrity, flexibility, loyalty, confidence, accountability, candor, preparedness, resourcefulness, self-discipline, and patience.
Effective leaders mobilize and focus the physical, mental, and emotional energy resources of themselves and of team members toward the team objectives