Microbiology

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xury2000
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20348
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Microbiology
Updated:
2010-05-24 00:39:57
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Microbio USMLE
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Microbio for USMLE 1
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  1. What in the pepidoglycan wall induces TNF and IL-1
    Teichoic Acid
  2. What makes up a capsule
    Polysaccharide
  3. What two unique substances are in spores?
    • Keratin Like coat
    • Dipicolinic Acid-heat resistance
  4. What is a pilus or fimbria made of
    Glycoprotein
  5. What is a glycocalyx
    • Helps mediate adherance to foreign surfaces
    • Made of Polysaccharide
  6. What induces TNF and IL-1 in Gram Negatives
    Lipid A
  7. What are the 3 Coccus
    • Staph
    • Strep
    • Neisseria
  8. What are the Gram + rods
    • Bacillius
    • Clostridium
    • Corynebacterium
    • Listeria
    • Mycobacteria
  9. G+ branching filamentous
    • Actinomyces
    • Nocardia (weakly acid Fast)
    • There are no G- branching filamentous
  10. G- Pleomorphic
    • Rickettsia
    • Chlamydiae
  11. G- Spiral
    • Leptospira
    • Borrelia
    • Treponema
  12. No Cell Wall
    Mycoplasma
  13. What does mycobacteria have thats unique
    • Mycolic Acid
    • High lipid Content
  14. What bacteria contain sterols and no cell wall
    • Mycoplasma
    • Require Cholestrol for membrane
  15. What microbes do not stain well
    • Treponema-darkfrield
    • Rickettsia-intracellular
    • Mycobacteria-acid fast stain
    • Mycoplasma-no cell wall
    • Legionella-silver stain
    • Chlymdia-intracellular
    • "These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color"
  16. Ziechl-Neelsen Stain
    Stains Acid Fast
  17. Giemsa Stain
    • Borrelia
    • Plasmodium
    • Trpanosomes
    • Chlamydia
  18. PAS (periodic Acid-Schiff)
    • Stains glycogen
    • Used to diagnose Whipple Disease
  19. India Ink Stain
    Cryptococcus Neoformans
  20. Silver Stain
    • Fungi
    • Legionella
  21. Haemophilus influenzae Stain
    Chocolate Agar with Factors V (NAD+) and X (Hematin)
  22. Nesseria Gonorrhoea Stain
    • Thayer Martin or VPN Media
    • Vancomycin-inhibits G+
    • Polymycin-inhibits G-
    • Nystatin-inhibit fungi
  23. Bortella Pertusis
    • Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
    • "Bordet for Bortella"
  24. Corynebacterium diphtheriae Stain
    • Tellurite Plate
    • Loffler's Media
    • "tell your attending to stop Loafing around"
  25. Mycobacteria Tuberculosis Stain
    Lowenstein-Jensen Agar
  26. Mycobacteria Pneumoniae
    Eaton's Agar
  27. Lactose Fermenting Enteric Stain
    • MacConkey's agar
    • Fermenters turn it pink
  28. Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar
    • Escherichia coli
    • Blue-lack colonies with metallic sheen
  29. Legionella Stain
    Charcoal yeast agar with Cysteine
  30. Fungi Agar
    Sabouraud's Agar
  31. Urease Positive
    • Proteus
    • Klebsiella
    • H. Pylori
    • Ureaplasma
    • "Particular Kinds Have Urease"
  32. Pigment producing bacteria
    • Actinomyces Israelii-yellow stain due to pus trapped inside the cells
    • S. Aureus-yellow pigment
    • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa- blue-green pigment
    • Serratia Marcescens-red pigment
  33. Protein A
    • Binds Fc portion of Ig
    • S. Aureus
  34. IgA Protease
    • Straptococcus Pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus Influenzae B
    • Neisseria
    • "SHiN" bacteria
  35. M Protein
    • Stops phagocytosis
    • Group A Strep.
  36. What factors cause Sepsis
    • Endotoxins
    • Causes TNF and IL-1 secretion
  37. Superantigens cause?
    • Bind MHC II and T-Cell receptors simutanousely
    • Cause massive IFN-Gamma and IL-2 secretion
  38. TSST-1
    • Staff. Aureus
    • Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome
  39. Erythrogenic Toxin
    Strep. Pyogenes
  40. Increases intracullar cAMP
    ADP Ribosylating Toxins
    • Cholerae
    • Anthracis
    • Macazatuvs revenge (E. Coli ETEC)
    • Pertussis
  41. What bacteria inactivates EF-2 (elongation factor 2)
    Corynebacterium Diptheriae
  42. Alpha Toxin
    Double Zone of hemolysis on blood agar
    Clostridium Perfringens
  43. Floppy Baby Syndrome
    • Clostridium Botulism
    • Blocks ACTH
  44. Inactivates 60S
    • Shiga Toxin
    • Shigella
    • E. Coli H7
  45. Streptolysin O
    • Strep. Pyogens
    • Hemolysin
    • Induces ASO antibody used in detection of Rheumatic Fever
  46. Edema Factor
    • Bacillus Anthracis
    • It is an adenylate cyclase and increases cAMP
  47. What G+ bacteria has endotoxin
    Listeria Monocytogenes
  48. What does Lipid A (endotoxin activate)
    • Macrophages-IL-1, TNF, NO
    • Complement (alternative pathway)- C3a, C5a
    • Hageman Factor-coagulation Cascade leading to DIC
  49. What toxins are carried by Lysogenic Phages
    • ShigA-toxin
    • Botulinum toxin
    • Cholera Toxin
    • Diphtheria Toxin
    • Erythrogenic Toxin
    • "ABCDE"
  50. Gram + (purple/blue)
    Catalase +
    Cocci
    Staphylococcus
  51. Gram +
    Cocci
    Coagulase +
    Staph. Aureus
  52. Gram +
    Cocci
    Catalase +
    Coagulase -
    • Staph. Epidermidis
    • Staph. Saprophyticus
  53. Gram +
    Cocci
    Catalase -
    Streptococcus
  54. Gram +
    Rods
    • Bacillus
    • Clostridium
    • Corynebacterium
    • Listeria
  55. Gram +
    Cocci
    Alpha Hemolytic
    Quellung +
    • Strep. Pneumoniae
    • Optosin Senstive
    • Bile soluble
  56. Gram +
    Cocci
    Alpha Hemolytic
    Quellung -
    • Strep. Viridans
    • Optochin Resistant
    • Not Bile Soluble
  57. Gram +
    Cocci
    Beta Hemolytic
    Bacitracin Sensitive
    Group A: Strep. Pyogenes
  58. Gram + Cocci
    Beta Hemolytic
    Bacitracin Resistant
    Group B: Strep. agalactiae
  59. Gram +Cocci
    No hemolysis
    Bacitracin Sensitive
    • Enterococcus
    • Peptostreptococcus
  60. Scalded Skin Syndrome
    • Staph. Aureus
    • Due to Exfloiatin
  61. Rapid Onset Food Poisioning
    Staph. Aureus
  62. Stap. Aureus infections
    • Acute Bacterial endocarditis
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Organ Abssess
    • Toxic shock Syndrome (TSST-1 toxin)
  63. Staph. Epidermidis Infections
    • Prosthetic Devices
    • Intravenos Catheters
    • Adherent Biofilms
  64. Strep. Pneumoniae Infections
    • Most common cause of:
    • Meningitis
    • Otitis Media
    • Pneumonia
    • Sinusitis
    • "think of the pneomococcus warrior"
  65. Features of Strep. Pneumoniae
    • Encapsulated (Quellung +)
    • IgA protease
    • Alpha-hemolytic
    • Optochin Sensitive
    • Causes Sepsis in sickle cell anemia and Splenectomy
  66. Strep. Viridans Infections
    • Subacute Endocarditis (Strep. Sanguis)-"alot of blood in the heart"
    • Dental Caries (Strep. Mutans)
  67. Features of Strep. Viridans
    • Alpha-hemolytic
    • Optochin Resistant
  68. Strep. Pyogens Infections
    • Pharyngitis
    • Cellulitis
    • Impetigo
    • Scarlet Fever
    • Rheumatic Fever
    • Acute Poststrep. Glomerulonephritis
  69. Strep. Pyogens Features
    • M-protein
    • Bacitracin Sensitive
  70. Strep. Agalactiae (Group B) infections
    • Causes infections in babies
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Sepsis
  71. Features of Strep. Agalactiae
    • Bacitracin resistant
    • B-hemolytic
  72. Enterococci Infections
    • UTI
    • Subacute Endocarditis
  73. Enterococci Features
    • Normal colonic flora
    • Penicillin G resistant
    • Can grow in NaCL 6.5% AND bile
  74. Nonenterococcal Features (group D strep)
    Can only grow in Bile but not 6.5% NaCl
  75. Streptococcus Bovis infections
    • Bacteremia and Subacute Endocarditis in COLON CANCER patients
    • "Bovis in the blood, better beware, cancer in the bowel"
  76. Diphtheria infection features
    • Pseudomembranous Pharyngitis
    • Lymphadenopathy
    • AV-conduction block
    • Peripheral Nerve Palsies
    • Guillain Barre like syndrome
    • Palatal Paralysis and cranial Neropathies
    • Gram + rods with metachromatic (blue and RED) granules
  77. What makes spores so resistant
    Dipicolinic Acid
  78. Spore Forming Gram Positives
    • Bacillus Anthracis
    • Bacillus Cereus
    • Clostridum Perfringens
    • Clostridum tetani
    • Clostridum botulinum
  79. Lockjaw (trismus)
    Spastic Paralysis
    Permanent Grin on face (risus sardonicus)
    • Tetanus caused by Clostridium Tetani
    • Tetanospamin
    • Inhbits GABA and Glycine from Renshaw Cells
  80. Releases Toxin that inhibits ACh release
    • Botulism-flaccid paralysis
    • Clostridium Botulinium
    • Floppy Baby Syndrome (honey ingestion)
  81. Gas Gangrene is caused by
    • Clostridium Perfringens
    • Alpha-toxin: Lecithinase (a phospholipase)
  82. Membrane in colon after clindamycin regime
    • Psuedomembranous Colitis
    • Clostridium Difficile
  83. Has a polypeptide capsule containing D-glutamate
    Bacillus Anthracis
  84. Painless black ulcer (eschar) surrounded by edematous ring
    Gram + Rod
    spore forming
    Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis
  85. Flu like symptomns, fever, pulmonary hemorrhage, mediastinitis, shock
    Gram + Rod
    Spore forming
    • Pulmonary Anthrax caused by Bacillis Anthracis
    • Also called "woolsorters' disease"
    • Can also cause GI infection: abdominal Pain, Bloody diarrhea, Vomitting
  86. Only Gram + bacteria with endotoxin
    Listeria Monocytogens
  87. Forms Actin Rockets to move from cell to cell
    Listeria Monocytogens
  88. Listeria Monocytogens infections
    • Neonatal Meningitis
    • Meningitis in immune comprimised / elderly
    • Septicemia in pregnant woman
    • Mild gastroenteritis in healthy people
  89. Listeria Monocytogens Features
    • Tumbling Motiliy
    • Actin Rockets
    • Only G+ with endotoxin
    • Listeriolysin O and Phospholipases
  90. Actinomyces Israelii
    • Gram + rod
    • Forms long branching filaments
    • Forms yellow sulfur granules in sinus tract
    • Causes Oral/facial abscesses
    • Normal oral flora
  91. Nocardia Asteroides features
    • Gram + rod
    • Forms long branching filaments
    • Weakly acid-fast
    • Pulmonary infection in immune-compromised
  92. Signs of primary TB
    • Hilar Lymph Nodes
    • Lesion in lower lobe on x-ray (Ghon Focus)
    • Collectively known as Ghon Complex
    • May be asymtomatic
  93. What are extra-pulmonary infections of TB
    • CNS-parenchymal tuberculoma or meningitis
    • Vertebral Body-tuberculous artheritis of the intervertebral joints (Pott's Disease)
    • Lymphadenitis
    • Renal
    • GI
  94. Where are secondary TB lesions located
    • Upper lobes
    • In contrast to primary lesions of lower/middle lobes
  95. Classic presentation of TB
    • Fever
    • Night Sweats
    • Weight Loss
    • Hemoptysis
  96. What do mycobacteria stain with.
    • Gram +
    • Acid Fast Stains-they appear bright red on Ziehl-neelsen stain since they resist ethanol based de-colorization
  97. Myocobacteria Kansasii
    Pulmonary Infection with TB like symtomns
  98. Mycobacterium Avium-intracellulare
    • Desemminated disease in AIDS patients
    • Fever, weight loss
    • Hepatitis
    • Bone marrow suppression
    • Chronic watery diarrhea
  99. Why does leprosy affect the skin and superficial nerves
    It likes cool temperatures
  100. What culture is used for Mycobacterium Leprae
    None-can't be grown in vitro
  101. What are the two different diseases of Mycobacterium Leprae
    • Lepromatous Leprosy-presents as nodules all over skin and is communicable. Saddle nose. Blindness, infertility. Digit Absorption. Due to failed Cell-mediated immunity
    • Tuberculoud Leprosy-Few hypoesthetic (low sensitivity to stimuli) nodules
  102. Treatment of Mycobacterium Leprae
    • Dapsone
    • Give for 2 years
    • Rifampin and Clofazimine are alternatives or additions
  103. What are the toxic side effects of Dapson
    • Hemolysis
    • Methemoglobinemia
  104. Gram -
    Cocci
    Maltose Fermenter
    Neisseria Meningitidis
  105. Gram -
    Cocci
    Maltose Non-fermenter
    Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
  106. Gram-
    Rod
    Lactose non-fermenter
    Oxidase +
    Pseudomonas
  107. Gram -
    Rod
    Lactose Non-fermenter
    Oxidase -
    • Shigella
    • Salmonella
    • Proteus
  108. Gram -
    Rod
    Lactose Fermenter
    • Klebsiella
    • E. Coli
    • others...
  109. Pink colonies on MacConkey Agar
    • Indicates lactose fermenting bacteria
    • Klebsiella
    • E. Coli
  110. What antibiotics are all gram- bacteria resistant to
    • Penicillin G
    • Vancomycin
    • Outer membrane prevents drugs from entering
  111. Kidney-shaped Gram negative Diplococci
    Neisseria
  112. Neisseria Gonococci Infections
    • Gonorrhea
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease
    • Septic Arthritis
    • Neonatal Conjunctivitis
    • Fitz-hugh-Curtis Syndrome=upper quadrant tenderness (may be referred to right shoulder) with jaudice. Due to Glissons' capsule formation due to infection of the liver. Follows an PID.
  113. Features of Neisseria Gonococci
    • IgA protease
    • No Capsule
    • No Maltose fermentation
    • No vaccine (due to high antigenic variation)
  114. Neisseria Meningococci Infections
    • Meningococcemia-normals septicemia signs plus Petechial Rash over body
    • Meninigitis
    • Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome=Hemorrhage of the adrenal glands plus hypotension and petechial rash
  115. Neisseria Meningitis Features
    • IgA proteases
    • Polysaccharide Capsule
    • Maltose Fermentation
    • Vaccine
    • Respiratory and oral secretions-asymptomatic carriage in nasalpharynx
  116. Haemophilus Influenzae infections
    • Epiglottitis-cherry red
    • Meningitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Otitis Media
    • Septic Arthritis in infants
    • Sepesis in people with no spleens
  117. Haemophilus Influenza features
    • IgA protease
    • Capsule B is most infectious
    • Grow on Chocolate Agar with factor V (NAD+) and X (hematin)
  118. Treatment of Haemophilus Influenza
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Rifampin for prophylaxis in close contacts
  119. Severe pneumonia and fever
    • Legionella Disease
    • Pontiac Fever=mild flue-like syndromes
    • Treat with Erythromycin
  120. Features of Legionella Pneumophilia
    • Use Silver Stain
    • Charcoal yeast extract agar with Cysteine
    • Detect by antigen in urine
    • No person to person transmission
    • Transmit through aerosol from environmental water
    • Treat with Erythromycin
    • "French legionaire in Silver helmet sitting around Charcoal fire, he is no Sissy (cysteine)"
  121. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infections
    • Wound and burn infections
    • Pneumonia-in Cystic fibrosis patients
    • Sepsis-black lesion on skin
    • External Otitis
    • UTI
    • Endocarditis in Drug users
    • Diabetic Osteomyelitis
    • Drug user Osteomyelitis
    • Corneal infection in contact lens wearers
    • Hot Tub Folliculitis
  122. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa features
    • Aerobic
    • Non-lactose fermenting
    • Oxidase positive
    • Produces Blue-green pigment (Pyocyanine)
    • Grape-like Odor
    • Exotoxin A-inactivates EF2
    • Aminoglycoside + Anti-Pseudomonas Penicillin
  123. Features of Enterobacteriacaea
    • O antigen- endotoxin
    • K antigen-Capsule
    • H antigen-flagellar
    • Ferment Glucose
    • Oxidase Neagtive
    • "COFFe"
  124. Escherichia Coli infections
    • Newborn meningitis
    • UTI-cystitis and pyelonephritis
    • Hopsital acquired sepsis
    • Hospital acquired pneumonia
    • Diarrhea (EIEC, EHEC, ETEC, EPEC)
  125. EIEC
    • Shiga-like toxin
    • Invades intestinal mucosa
    • Dysentary
    • Pus in stool
    • Fever
  126. EHEC
    • Shiga like toxin
    • Bloody Diarrhea
    • No pus in stool
    • No Fever
    • Hemorrhagic Uremic Syndrome -Anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure. Associated with E. Coli H7
  127. Traveler's Diarrhea
    • ETEC
    • Heat stable Toxin (ST)-increases cGMP
    • Heat Labile Toxin (LT)-increases cAMP, same as cholera
  128. EPEC
    • Called Entero-pathogenic E. Coli
    • No toxin
    • Flattens vili and prevents absorption
    • Diarrhea in children
  129. Pneumonia in Alcholics and Diabetics when aspirated
    • Klebsiella
    • Red current jelly sputum-bloody sputum due to lung necrosis
    • Abscess in lungs
    • UTI in hospitals
  130. Salmonella Features
    • Flagella
    • Produces H2S-sulfuric Acid
    • Non-lactose fermenter
    • Monocytic response
    • Siderophores-steal iron
    • Fecal-Oral
  131. Salmonella Infections
    • Causes Bloody diarrhea
    • Typhoid Fever (salmonella typhi)
    • Chronic carrier state-in gallbladder
    • Sepsis
    • Osteomyelitis-in sickle cell patients
    • Fecal-Oral
  132. Fever, Diarrhea, rose spots on abdomen, Liver or spleen enlargement
    • Typhoid Fever
    • Salmonella Typhi
    • Can remain in gallballder chronically (typhoid mary)
  133. Shigella features
    • No H2S production
    • No lactose fermentation
    • Non-motile
    • Shiga Toxin-inactivates 60S ribosome
  134. Shigella Infection
    BLOODY diarrhea with mucus and pus
  135. Yersinia Enterocolitica features
    • Zoonotic
    • Contaminated food or water
    • Unpasteruized Milk
    • V and W Antigens
    • ST enterotoxin-increase cGMP
  136. Yersinia Enterocolitica infection
    • Acute enterocolitis with fever, diarrhea and abdomional pain
    • Can mimic appendicitis or Crohn's
  137. Helicobacter Pylori
    • Urease Positive
    • Alakine Urine
    • Treat with triple therapy: Metronidazole, Bismuth, Tetracycline / Amoxicillin
    • or Metronidazole, Omeprazole, Clarithromycin
  138. Helicobacter Pylori infections
    • Duodenal Ulcers
    • Chronic gastritis
    • Risk for peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma
  139. Leptospira Interrogans features
    • Aerobic
    • Axial flagella (stealth)
    • Question mark shaped
    • Spread through water contaminated with animal urine
  140. Leptospira Interrogans infections
    • Leptospirosis-usually in tropics
    • Weil's Disease-sever form of leptospirosis with renal failure, hepatitis, mental changes, hemorrhage in multiple organs
  141. Leptospirosis
    • Fever, headache, abdominal pain
    • Jaundice
    • Photophobia with conjunctivitis
    • These symtomns recurr over and over
    • Prevalent in tropics
    • Lyme Disease
    • Borrelia Burgdorferi
    • Ixodes Tick-requires deer
    • Erythema chronicum migrans-expanding Bull's Eye Rash
  142. Three Stages of Lyme Disease
    1) Erythema Chonicum Migrans (ECM)

    • 2) Desseminated-multiple ECM, Bells palsy, aseptic meningitis, peripheral neuropathy,
    • AV heart block, myocarditis

    3) Chronic monoarthritis and migratory polyarthritis
  143. Treponema Pallidum infections
    Syphilis
  144. Treponema Pertenue infections
    • Jaws-skin, bone, joint lesion. Heals with keloids with severe deformities.
    • Severe facial disfigurement
    • Disease of tropics.
  145. Stages of Syphillis
    1) Painless ulcer

    2) Maculopapular rash-rash on palms and soles, condylomata lata (warts)

    • 3) Chronic granulomas (Gummas) of skin and bone
    • Aortitis (vasa vasorum destruction)
    • Tabes Dorsalis (neurosphyllis)-broad based ataxia, positive Romberg, Charcot joints, stroke with no hypertension
    • Argyll-robertson pupil

    Penicillin G for treatment
  146. Saber Shin
    Saddle Nose
    Deafness
    • Congeital Syphilis
    • CN VIII involvment leads to deafness
    • Mulberry Molars-dwarfing of the cusps and hypertrophy of the enamel surrounding the cusp
    • Hutchinson's teeth- teeth that are smaller and more widely spaced than normal and which have notches on their biting surfaces
    • Screen with VDRL test in pregnancy
    • FTA-ABS is specific for treponemes
  147. False VDRL positive test causes
    • Viruses
    • Drugs
    • Rheumatic Fever
    • Lupus and Leprosy
    • "VDRL"
  148. Cat scratch fever
    • Bartonella Henselae
    • Low Grade fever with lympadenopathy
    • Bacillary angiomatosis in Immune compromised
    • Culture negative endocarditis
  149. Touched some animals
    Drank some unpasturized milk
    Fever that peeks in the evening and returns to normal during the day
    Brucellosis / Undulant Fever
  150. Saw a wild Rabbit and went to pet it
    Found some ticks onself
    Ulcer develops with swelling of lymph nodes
    Francisella Tularensis
  151. Groin lymph node enlargement
    Black skin discoloration
    • Bubonic Plague
    • Yersinia Pestis
    • Bipolar staining
    • Sepsis-bacteria survive in macrophages and is spread to blood and organs
  152. Bite from dog or cat
    • Pasterurella Multocida
    • Not facultative intracellular organism
    • Local cellulitis
  153. Vaginal Discharge
    Fishy Smell
    Non-painful
    Vaginal Epithelial cells with tiny pleomorphic gram- bacilli within cytoplasm
    • Bacterial Vaginitis
    • Not an STD
    • Clue cells-Vaginal Epithelial cells with tiny pleomorphic gram- bacilli within cytoplasm
    • Mobiluncus (anerobe) may also be involved
    • Metronidazole treatment
  154. Rickettsiae features
    • Obligate intracellular organisms
    • CoA and NAD+ for survival
    • All through athropod vector except coxiella (aerosol)
    • Tetracyclin treatment
  155. Rash on hands and soles migrating to trunk
    Tick found on body
    Fever
    Headache
    Conjunctival redness
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Rickettsia Rickettsii
  156. Rash starting on drunk and spread outward
    Does not involve palms or soles
    Flea found on body
    • Endemic Typhus
    • Rickettsia Typhi
  157. Positive Weil-felix reaction: Positive OX-19
    Rash that spares palms and soles
    Louse found on body after contact with flying squirrel
    • Epidemic Typhus
    • Rickettsia Prowazekii
    • Gangrene of hands and feet-due to clots from endothelial damage
    • Brill-zinsser disease=reactivation of disease but no Rash this time
  158. Weil-felix reaction
    • Indicates antibodies against Rickettsia
    • Patient serum mixed with proteus antigens

    • 1) R. Rickettsii-OX19 and OX 2
    • 2) R. Prowazekii- OX 19
    • 3) R. Typhi- OX 19
    • 4) R. Tsutsugamushi- OX-K
  159. Chlamydia features
    • Obligate intracellular organisms
    • Lacks Muramic acid in cell wall-resistant to lysosome
    • Lacks peptidoglycan layer
    • Can not be grown on Agar, need live cells (yolk sac or cell culture)
    • Non motile
    • No Pilli
    • No exotoxin
    • Giemsa orFlourescent antibody stain-cytoplasmic inclusions
  160. Chlamydia life cycle
    • 1) Elementary body-infectious and enters cells via endocytosis
    • 2) Reticulate Body (initial body)-replicates in cells by fission
    • 3) Reticulate bodies turn back into elementary bodies
    • 4) Elementary bodies are released
  161. Chlamydia Trachomatis infections
    1) Serotype A, B, C-traction scarring of eyelid causing eyelashes to rub on eye causing corneal scarring and blindness. Chronic infection

    • 2) Serotype D through K
    • -inclusion Conjuctivitis
    • -Neonatal Pneumonia
    • -Neonatal Conjunctivitis
    • -Ectopic pregnacy from PID
    • -nongonococcal urethritis
    • -PID
    • -Complications of genital infections: Reiter's syndrome (conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis), Fitz-hugh-Curtis

    • 3) L1, L2, L3
    • -Lymphogranuloma venerum-lymphadenitis and positive Frei test

    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracycline
  162. Chalmydia Psittaci
    • Atypical Pneumonia-Fever and dry, nonproductive cough
    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracycline
  163. Chlamydia Pneumoniae
    • Atypical Pneumonia-fever and dry, nonproductive cough
    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracycline
  164. Nonproductive Cough
    Intersitial lung infiltrate
    Cold Agglutinins (IgM) in high amounts
    • "Walking Pnuemonia"- atypical pneumonia
    • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
    • Cold agglutinins can lyse or agglutinate RBC
    • Grown on Eaton's Agar

    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracycline
  165. Mycoplasma features
    • No Cell Wall
    • Not Seen on gram stain
    • Bacteria membrane has cholesterol-unique
    • Eaton's agar culture
    • Outbreak in military recruits and prisons
  166. Pneumonia
    Mississippi River Valley
    Intracellular Macrophage inclusions
    • Histoplasmosis
    • Also Ohio river Valleys
    • Bird and Bat droppings

    • Intraconazle
    • Ampho. B
  167. Pneumonia
    Weight Loss
    Night Sweat
    Fever
    Broad-based budding yeast
    • Blastomycosis
    • Granulomatous Nodules
    • Central America and Eastern states
  168. Pneumonia
    Meningitis
    Southwest and California
    After earthquake
    • Coccidiodomycosis
    • Can also cause erythema nodosum (painful erythematous nodular lesions)

    • Imaconazole
    • Fluconazole
  169. Budding yeast with captain wheel formation
    Latin America
    Paracoccidiomycosis
  170. What infection can systemic mycoses mimic
    Tuberculosis
  171. List the two modes of fungi
    • Mold=cold
    • Yeast=warm
  172. Spaghetti and Meatball apperance
    Hypopigmented patches on skin
    • Malassezia Furfur
    • Degranulation of lipids produce acids that damage melanocytes
    • Stain with Potassium Hydroxide KOH prep (use for all fungi)

    • Topical miconazole
    • Seleniun Sulfide
  173. Pruritic lesion with central clearing
    Mold hyphae in KOH stain
    • Microsporum-pet reservoir, flouresce under Wood's light
    • Trichophyton
    • Epidermophyton

    Digests keratin

    • Tinea Corporis=ring worm
    • Tinea Pedis=atheletes foot
    • Tinea Cruris=jock itch
    • Tinea Capitis=scalp

    Topical Azoles
  174. White deposits on mouth and tongue
    Stain shows yeast with pseudohypae
    • Candia Albicans
    • Esophageal thrush in immuno-compromised
    • Vulvovaginitis-diabetes or use of antibiotics
    • Diaper rash
    • Endocarditis-in IV drug users
    • Desseminated disease-immune compromised
    • Chronic Mucocutanous Candidiasis- immune compromised

    • Nystatin for superficial
    • Amphoteracin B for systemic
  175. Lung cavity
    Stain shows mold with septate Hypae that branch at ACUTE angles
    • Aspergillus Fumigatus
    • Lung cavity aspergilloma

    • Also cause:
    • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    • Invasive apsergillosis-immune compromised
    • Not dimorphic
    • Mold
  176. Heavily encapsulated yeast on india ink stain
    Soap Bubble lesions in brain
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Crytococcal Meningitis
    • Crypotococcosis
    • Found in pigeons and soil
    • Not Dimorphic
    • Stain with Inida ink
    • Yeast
    • Sabouraud's agar for culture
    • Latex agglutination test
  177. Acute sinusitis (sinus pain or congestion)
    Eye swelling and protrusion (proptosis)
    Dark nasal eschar (scabbing)
    Nasal stuffiness that progresses to black discharge, and acute sinusitis along with swelling of the eye
    Mold with Nonseptate hyphae branching at WIDE angels
    • Mucormycosis
    • Mucor
    • Rhizopus
    • Ketoacidotic diabetic and Leukemic patients
    • Mold
  178. Aids patient
    Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
    Methnamine silver stain of lung shows yeast
    • Pneumocystis Jiroveci
    • Major AIDS infection
    • Methenamine Silver Stain

    • TMP-SMX
    • Pentamidine
    • Dapsone
  179. Gardner's working on roses
    Ulcer on skin that spread along lumphatics
    Yeast in culture
    • Sporotrichosis
    • Sporothrix
    • Cigar shaped budding Yeast
    • Yeast

    • Postassium iodide
    • Itraconazole
  180. Live vaccines
    Humoral and Cell mediated

    • Smallpox
    • Yellow Fever
    • Chickenpox (VZV)
    • Sabin's Polio
    • MMR

    "Small yellow chickens get vaccinated with Sabins and MMR"
  181. Killed Vaccines
    Only humoral

    • Rabies
    • Influenza
    • Salk Polio
    • HAV
  182. Recombinant vaccines
    • HBV
    • HPV- type 6, 11, 16, 18
  183. Single stranded DNA virus
    Parvovirus

    "part-of-a-virus"
  184. Circular dsDNA virus
    • Papilloma
    • Polyoma
    • Hepadnavirus
  185. Naked DNA viruses
    • Papillo
    • Adeno
    • Parvo

    "PAP smear"
  186. Double stranded RNA virus
    Reovirus

    "repeato-virus"
  187. DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm
    Pox virus
  188. RNA virus that replicates in Nucleus
    • Influenza Virus
    • Retro Virus
  189. Naked viruses
    • Calici
    • picorna
    • Reo
    • Parvo
    • adeno
    • Papillo
    • Polyma

    "Naked CPR and PAPP smear"
  190. Causes pink eye
    Childhood upper respiratory infection
    Adenovirus
  191. Slapped red cheeks
    Fever
    • Parvo B19
    • Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
    • Aplastic anemia in sickle cell disease
    • RBC destruction in fetus leads to hydrops fetalis and death
    • ssDNA virus
    • Smallest DNA virus
  192. Papillomavirus
    • HPV
    • Warts (1,2,4,7)
    • Cerival dusplasia
    • Cervical cancer (16,18)
  193. Polyomavirus
    • JC Polyomavirus
    • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV patients-degenerative CNS disease
  194. Poxvirus
    • Smallpox-lesions in same phase
    • Molluscum Contagiosum-small white bumps with central dimple.

    Largest DNA virus
  195. Herpes Virus
    • HSV-1=temporal encephalitis, Gingivostomatitis (cold sore), Keratoconjunctivitis
    • HSV-2=genital herpes
    • VZV=shingles, encephalitis
    • EBV=Mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma
    • CMV=mononucleosis, Owl's Eye inclusions
    • HHV-6=Roseola: high fevers folloed by diffuse rash
    • HHV-8=kapsoi's sarcoma in HIV patients (sexual)

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