Disappearance of sound when obtaining a blood pressure; typically occurs between the first and second Korotkoff sounds.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions.
Slower-than-normal heart rate; heart contracts fewer than 60 times/min.
cardiac output (CO)
Volume of blood expelled by the ventricles of the heart, equal to the amount of blood ejected at each beat multiplied by the number of beats in the period of time used for computation (usually 1 minute).
Temperature of deep structures of the body.
Secretion of sweat, especially profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, or emotional stress.
Deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat.
Sensation of shortness of breath.
Normal respirations that are quiet, effortless, and rhythmical.
Pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature.
Elevation in the hypothalamic set point so body temperature is regulated at a higher level.
Abnormal condition caused by depletion of body fluid and electrolytes resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to acclimatize to heat.
Continued exposure to extreme heat that raises the core body temperature to 40.5° C (105° F) or higher.
Disorder characterized by an elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 120/80 mm Hg.
Situation in which body temperature exceeds the set point.
Abnormal lowering of blood pressure that is inadequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of tissues.
Abnormal lowering of body temperature below 35° C, or 95° F, usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold.
Arterial blood oxygen level less than 60 mm Hg; low oxygen level in the blood.
Autosomal-dominant trait characterized by often fatal hyperthermia in affected people exposed to certain anesthetic agents.
Occurs primarily in neonates. Because neonates cannot shiver, a limited amount of vascular brown adipose tissue present at birth can be metabolized for heat production.
Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when a person stands.
Amount of hemoglobin fully saturated with oxygen, given as a percent value.
(1) Passage of a fluid through a specific organ or an area of the body. (2) Therapeutic measure whereby a drug intended for an isolated part of the body is introduced via the bloodstream. (3) Relates to the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when an individual assumes the standing posture; also called orthostatic hypotension.
Condition that exists when the radial pulse is less than the ventricular rate as auscultated at the apex or seen on an electrocardiogram. The condition indicates a lack of peripheral perfusion for some of the heart contractions.
Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, normally 30 to 40 mm Hg.
Abnormal elevation of the temperature of the body above 37° C (98.6° F) because of disease; same as fever.
Substances that cause a rise in body temperature, as in the case of bacterial toxins.
Device for measuring the arterial blood pressure that consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bladder connected to a tube, a bulb for pumping air into the bladder, and a gauge for indicating the amount of air pressure being exerted against the artery.
Rapid regular heart rate ranging between 100 and 150 beats/min.
Internal control of body temperature.
Respiratory process by which gases are moved into and out of the lungs.
Temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
the transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact.
transfer of heat away by air movement.
the transfer of heat energy when a liquid is changed to a gas
the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without direct contact between the two.
Relieving pain; drug that relieves pain
Stimulation of a person's skin to prevent or reduce pain perception. A massage, warm bath, hot and cold therapies, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are some ways to reduce pain perception.
Method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image, and gradually becomes less aware of pain.
Loss of sensation at the desired site of action.
Chemical that transfers the electrical impulse from the nerve fiber to the muscle fiber.
Somatic and visceral free nerve endings of thinly myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. They usually react to tissue injury but may also be excited by endogenous chemical substances.
Drug substance derived from opium or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain and that, with repeated use, may result in physical and psychological dependence (narcotic).
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
Drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic medications on demand.
Dosage form that contains no pharmacologically active ingredients but may relieve pain through psychological effects.
Potent hormone-like substances that act in exceedingly low doses on target organs. They can be used to treat asthma and gastric hyperacidity
Loss of sensation in an area of the body supplied by sensory nerve pathways.