Exam 2

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Exam 2
2013-02-26 02:31:10
exam nurs 101

NURS 101
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  1. afebrile
    without fever
  2. antipyretic
    Substance or procedure that reduces fever.
  3. auscultatory gap
    Disappearance of sound when obtaining a blood pressure; typically occurs between the first and second Korotkoff sounds.
  4. basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions.
  5. bradycardia
    Slower-than-normal heart rate; heart contracts fewer than 60 times/min.
  6. cardiac output (CO)
    Volume of blood expelled by the ventricles of the heart, equal to the amount of blood ejected at each beat multiplied by the number of beats in the period of time used for computation (usually 1 minute).
  7. core temperature
    Temperature of deep structures of the body.
  8. diaphoresis
    Secretion of sweat, especially profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, or emotional stress.
  9. dysrhythmia
    Deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat.
  10. dyspnea
    Sensation of shortness of breath.
  11. eupnea
    Normal respirations that are quiet, effortless, and rhythmical.
  12. febrile
    Pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature.
  13. fever
    Elevation in the hypothalamic set point so body temperature is regulated at a higher level.
  14. heat exhaustion
    Abnormal condition caused by depletion of body fluid and electrolytes resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to acclimatize to heat.
  15. heat stroke
    Continued exposure to extreme heat that raises the core body temperature to 40.5° C (105° F) or higher.
  16. hypertension
    Disorder characterized by an elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 120/80 mm Hg.
  17. hyperthermia
    Situation in which body temperature exceeds the set point.
  18. hypotension
    Abnormal lowering of blood pressure that is inadequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of tissues.
  19. hypothermia
    Abnormal lowering of body temperature below 35° C, or 95° F, usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold.
  20. hypoxemia
    Arterial blood oxygen level less than 60 mm Hg; low oxygen level in the blood.
  21. malignant hyperthermia
    Autosomal-dominant trait characterized by often fatal hyperthermia in affected people exposed to certain anesthetic agents.
  22. nonshivering thermogenesis
    Occurs primarily in neonates. Because neonates cannot shiver, a limited amount of vascular brown adipose tissue present at birth can be metabolized for heat production.
  23. orthostatic hypotension
    Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when a person stands.
  24. oxygen saturation
    Amount of hemoglobin fully saturated with oxygen, given as a percent value.
  25. perfusion
    (1) Passage of a fluid through a specific organ or an area of the body. (2) Therapeutic measure whereby a drug intended for an isolated part of the body is introduced via the bloodstream. (3) Relates to the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  26. postural hypotension
    Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when an individual assumes the standing posture; also called orthostatic hypotension.
  27. pulse deficit
    Condition that exists when the radial pulse is less than the ventricular rate as auscultated at the apex or seen on an electrocardiogram. The condition indicates a lack of peripheral perfusion for some of the heart contractions.
  28. pulse pressure
    Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, normally 30 to 40 mm Hg.
  29. pyrexia
    Abnormal elevation of the temperature of the body above 37° C (98.6° F) because of disease; same as fever.
  30. pyrogens
    Substances that cause a rise in body temperature, as in the case of bacterial toxins.
  31. sphygmomanometer
    Device for measuring the arterial blood pressure that consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bladder connected to a tube, a bulb for pumping air into the bladder, and a gauge for indicating the amount of air pressure being exerted against the artery.
  32. tachycardia
    Rapid regular heart rate ranging between 100 and 150 beats/min.
  33. thermoregulation
    Internal control of body temperature.
  34. ventilation
    Respiratory process by which gases are moved into and out of the lungs.
  35. vital signs
    Temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
  36. Conduction
    the transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact.
  37. Convection
    transfer of heat away by air movement.
  38. Evaporation
    the transfer of heat energy when a liquid is changed to a gas
  39. Radiation
    the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without direct contact between the two.
  40. analgesic
    Relieving pain; drug that relieves pain
  41. cutaneous stimulation
    Stimulation of a person's skin to prevent or reduce pain perception. A massage, warm bath, hot and cold therapies, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are some ways to reduce pain perception.
  42. Guided imagery
    Method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image, and gradually becomes less aware of pain.
  43. local anesthesia
    Loss of sensation at the desired site of action.
  44. neurotransmitter
    Chemical that transfers the electrical impulse from the nerve fiber to the muscle fiber.
  45. nociceptors
    Somatic and visceral free nerve endings of thinly myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. They usually react to tissue injury but may also be excited by endogenous chemical substances.
  46. opioid
    Drug substance derived from opium or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain and that, with repeated use, may result in physical and psychological dependence (narcotic).
  47. patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
    Drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic medications on demand.
  48. placebos
    Dosage form that contains no pharmacologically active ingredients but may relieve pain through psychological effects.
  49. prostaglandins
    Potent hormone-like substances that act in exceedingly low doses on target organs. They can be used to treat asthma and gastric hyperacidity
  50. regional anesthesia
    Loss of sensation in an area of the body supplied by sensory nerve pathways.
  51. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
    Technique in which a battery-powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical impulses directly to the surface of the skin.
  52. Transduction
    • converts energy produced by these stimuli into electrical energy,
    • begins in the periphery when a pain-producing stimulus sends an impulse across a sensory peripheral pain nerve fiber (nociceptor), initiating an action potential
  53. transmission
    Once transduction is complete, transmission of the pain impulse begins.