Med Term chp5 Cardiovascular system

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Med Term chp5 Cardiovascular system
2013-02-27 01:37:39
medterm cv system

medTerm pre req class LVN
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  1. anemia
    • lower than normal number of erythrocytes in the blood.
    • decrease of hemoglobin in the blood.
  2. aneurysm
    localized balloon like enlargement in the artery wall.
  3. angina pectoris
    (angina) severe episodes of chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium.
  4. angiogram
    picture or records of a blood vessel.
  5. aorta
    • the largest blood vessel in the body.
    • Left ventricle of the heart and forms main trunk of the arterial system.
  6. aortic valve stenosis
    surgical narrowing of the aortic valve.
  7. apex
    lower tip of the heart.
  8. arrhythmia
    loss of normal rhythm of heart beat.
  9. arterioectomy
    surgical removal of the artery
  10. aterionecrosis
    necrotic artery due lack of oxygen to the tissue
  11. arteriosclerosis
    abnormal hardening of the artery due to excess plaque build up
  12. asystole
    • complete lack of electrical activity in the heart.
    • Lack of heart contractions leading to insufficient blood supply and blood flow.
  13. atherectomy
    surgical removal of a fatty substance, or plaque.
  14. athersclerosis
    abnormal hardening of plaque or fatty substance.
  15. atrial fibrillation (A-fib)
    rapid, irregular, and twitching of the muscular heart wall.
  16. AV node (atrioventricular node)
    • receives impulses from SA node which is transferred to Bundle of His.
    • Location: floor of the RA near interatrial septum.
  17. basophils
    least common WBC which is responsible for allergic reactions.
  18. biscuspid valve (mitral valve)
    • has 2 cusps
    • Location: LEFT atrium & LEFT ventricle.
  19. blood gases
    • normally dissolved in the liquid portion of the blood.
    • oxygen
    • carbon dioxide
    • nitrogen
  20. blood pressure
    measurement of the amount of systolic/diastolic pressure exerted against walls of the arteries.
  21. bradycardia
    condition of slow resting heart rate.
  22. Bundle of His
    • group of fibers located within the interventricular septum.
    • electric impulses travel to L/R ventricles to Purkinje fibers.
  23. cardiac ischemia
    lack of blood flow and oxygen to heart muscle.
  24. cardiologist
    physician who specializes in Dx/Tx abnormalities and disorders of the heart.
  25. cardiomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the heart.
  26. cardiovascular
    Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
  27. carotid endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the lining of the or a portion of a clogged carotid artery.
  28. cholesterol
    fatty substance that is found in the blood and other parts of the body.
  29. common carotid
    • Location: both sides of the neck
    • Function: major arteries that carry blood to the head.
  30. congestive heart failure
    • most common in elderly.
    • The heart is not able to pump out all the blood it receives.
    • Decreased pumping=congestion.
  31. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    procedure performed with a fiberoptic camera through small openings of the ribs.
  32. defibrillation
    use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm.
  33. deoxygenated
    deficient in oxygen
  34. diastole
    relaxation of the heart
  35. dialated cardiomyopathy
    disease of the heart muscle that causes the heart to become enlarged and pump less strongly.
  36. diuretic
    medication used to increase urine secretion to rid the body of salt and water.
  37. electrocardiography
    process of recording the electrical impulses and activity of myocardium.
  38. embolism
    sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus (foreign object).
  39. endocarditis
    inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
  40. endocardium
    • consists of epithelial tissue
  41. eosinophils
    • WBC
    • formed in RBM
    • destroy parasitic organisms
    • play a major role in allergic reactions
  42. epicardium
    • EXTERNAL layer of the heart
    • INNER layer of the pericaridum
  43. erythrocytes
    • matured RBCs produced in the RBM.
    • transport oxygen to tissues.
  44. external carotid
    brings blood to the face.
  45. fibrillation
    rapid, uncontrolled heartbeat
  46. heart attack
    • also known as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
    • blockage of one or more arteries caused by plague build up.
  47. hematologist
    physician who specializes in Dx/Tx of abnormalities, diseases, disorders of the blood or blood forming tissues.
  48. hemolytic
    pertaining to the breakdown of RBCs
  49. hemorrhage
    loss of large amount of blood in a short time.
  50. hemostasis
    stop or control bleeding.
  51. hyperplipidemia
    elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood
  52. hypertension (HTN)
    high blood pressure; elevation of arterial blood pressure.
  53. hypotension
    • lower than normal blood pressure.
    • Symptoms include dizziness.
  54. idiopathic hypertension
    • consistently elevated blood pressure with unknown cause.
    • primary hypertension
  55. infarction
    sudden insufficiency of blood
  56. inferior vena cava
    drains blood from lower extremities to the heart.
  57. interatrial septum
    septum that separates the R/L atrium.
  58. internal carotid
    brings oxygen to the brain
  59. interventricular septum
    separates the R/L ventricles
  60. ischemia
    condition of insufficient supply of oxygen in tissues due to restricted blood flow to the part of the body.
  61. left-sided heart failure
    • also known as pulmonary edema; accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
    • left side of the heart is unable to pump oxygenated blood from the lung.
  62. leukemia
    cancer characteristic of abnormal increase of WBC found in the blood, tissues, and/or circulating blood.
  63. leukocytes
    • WBC
    • defends body against infective organisms.
  64. lumen
    opening within the blood vessels
  65. lymphocytes
    • formed in the RBM, spleen, and lymph nodes.
    • they identify foreign substances and germs then produce antibodies that specifically target them.
  66. mitral valve
    • also known as BICUSPID VALVE.
    • located LA/LV
    • has 2 cusps
  67. mitral valve prolasped
    falling or dropping down of an affected valve (mitral)
  68. myocardial infarction
    • also known as a HEART ATTACK.
    • caused by blockage of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque build up.
  69. myocardial muscle
    also known as the MYOCARDIUM
  70. myocarditis
    • inflammation of the myocardium.
    • can develop as a complication of a viral infection.
  71. myocardium
    • middle and thickest layer of the heart.
    • creates pumping movement that is necessary to maintain the blood flow throughout the body.
  72. monocytes
    • WBC formed in the RBM, spleen, and lymph nodes.
    • they destroy pathogens through phagocytosis (engulf and digest).
  73. natural pacemaker
    • referred to SA node (sinoatrial node)
    • it establishes the basic rhythm and rate of the heart.
  74. neutrophil
    • most common type of WBC
    • defense against pathogens by surrounding and swallowing.
  75. occlursion
    total blockage
  76. oxygenated
    rich in oxygen
  77. P wave
    stimulation of the atria (contraction)
  78. palpitation
    pounding, racing heart beat.
  79. parietal pericardium
    fibrous sac that surrounds and protects the heart.
  80. paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
    episode that begins and ends abruptly which there are very rapid regular heartbeats originating in the atrium or AV node.
  81. perfusion
    flow of blood through the vessels of an organ
  82. pericardial fluid
    • between the parietal and visceral pericardium.
    • it acts as a lubricant to prevent friction as the heart beats.
  83. percardial sac
    double walled membranous sac that encloses the heart.
  84. pericarditis
    • inflammation of the percardium.
    • accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac.
    • excess fluid can restrict the heart to beat.
  85. peripheral artery disease
    caused by atherosclerosis
  86. phagocytosis
    process of destroying pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them.
  87. phlebitis
    inflammation of the vein due to infiltrated walls forming a clot.
  88. plaque
    fatty deposit found within the lumen of an artery.
  89. plasmapheresis
    • removal of whole blood from the body
    • separation of blood's cellular elements.
  90. proplasped
    falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part.
  91. pulmonary
    pertaining to the lungs
  92. pulmonary circulation
    blood flow between the heart and lungs.
  93. pulmonary artery
    carries deoxygenated blood from RV and into the lungs
  94. pulmonary veins
    carry oxygenated blood from lungs to LA
  95. pulmonary edema
    • also known as left sided heart failure.
    • inefficient pumping of oxygen rich blood from the lungs into the RA.
    • accumulation of fluid=congestion.
  96. QRS complex
    stimulation of ventricles (contraction) as the atria relaxes.
  97. Rh negative (Rh-)
    about 15% of Americans do not have the Rh antigen.
  98. Rh positive (Rh+)
    about 85% of Americans have the Rh antigen.
  99. right-sided heart failure
    • fluid build up through the rest of the body.
    • The right side of the heart is unable to pump causing edema of the lower extremeties.
  100. sinoatrial node (SA node)
    • Location: posterior wall of RA near the entrance of superior vena cava.
    • it is also known as "natural pacemaker" since it establishes the basic rhythm and rate of the heart.
  101. pulmonary semilunar valve
    • Location: between the RV and pulmonary artery
    • it allows deoxygenated blood to flow to the lungs for gas exchange.
  102. aortic semilunar valve
    • Location: LV & aorta
    • allows oxygen rich blood to flow through into the aorta and carried out to the rest of the body.
  103. septicemia
    • condition where bacteria is found in the blood leading to severe infections.
    • "septic"
  104. superior vena cava
    transports deoxygenated blood from upper portion of the body into the RA.
  105. systole
    contraction of the heart.
  106. T wave
    recovery of ventricles; relaxation
  107. purkinje fibers
    • specialized conductive fibers that receive impulses from Bundle of His to cells within the ventricles causing CONTRACTION.
    • Location: within walls of ventricles.
  108. tachycardia
    • abnormally rapid resting heart rate
    • 100+ beats per min.
  109. thrombocytes
    platelets which play an important role in clotting.
  110. thrombocytosis
    abnormal increase of platelets in the blood.
  111. thrombolytic
    PT to the breakdown of a thrombus or clot.
  112. thrombosis
    abnormal condition of having a thrombus
  113. thrombus
    a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein.
  114. tricuspid valve
    • has 3 cusps
    • controls blood flow from RA to RV.
  115. valvoplasty
    surgical repair (replacement) of a valve
  116. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen veins usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs.
  117. vascular
    PT to the blood vessels
  118. vasculitis
    inflammation of a blood vessel
  119. venous stenosis
    condition of narrowing, stiffening, thickening blockage of one or more veins.
  120. ventricle
    • two lower chambers of the hert
    • divided by the interventricular septum
    • has thicker walls to pump blood out to the rest of the body.
  121. ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)
    • consist of rapid, irregular useless contractions of the ventricles.
    • Atrium chambers are pumping regularly.
  122. ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
    rapid heartbeat that begins with the ventricles
  123. visceral pericardium
    • inner layer
    • also forms outer layer over the epicardium
  124. valvular prolapse
    the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely.
  125. orthostatic hypotension
    low BP when standing up
  126. myelodysplastic syndrome
    insufficient production of one or more blood cells.
  127. perinicious anemia
    caused by lack of protein that helps the body absorb vitamin B12.
  128. hemochromatosis
    genetic disorder of intestines absorbing too much iron.
  129. anticoagulant
    prevents new clots from forming
  130. coumadin
    prevents clots from producing or forming more clots
  131. nitroglycerin
    • vasodilator that is prescribed to prevent or relieve pain of agina by dilating blood vessels.
    • increases blood flow and oxygen supply.
  132. ACE inhibitor
    • antihypertensive
    • relaxes vessels to decrease elevated BP.
    • blocks the action of an enzyme that causes vessels to contract.
  133. beta blocker
    • reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heartbeat.
    • antihypertensive
  134. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • balloon angioplasty
    • small balloon that flattens the plaque deposit in the artery.
  135. restenosis
    condition when stent no longer works and requires a new replacement.
  136. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    • also known as bypass surgery
    • a piece of vein from leg or chest is implanted into the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery.
  137. defibrillation
    use of electrical shock to restore heart's normal rhythm.
  138. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression.
  139. plasmapheresis
    removal of whole blood from the body and separation of blood's cellular elements.
  140. serum
    plasma without clotting proteins.
  141. type A blood
    has antigen A and B antibodies
  142. type B blood
    has antigen B and A antibodies
  143. type AB blood
    has AB antigens and NO ANTIBODIES
  144. type O blood
    • no antigens
    • CANNOT receive type A, B, AB blood
  145. coronary heart disease (CHD)
    caused by athersclerosis