SA Med Exam3 little more
Card Set Information
SA Med Exam3 little more
How do hemoplasma spp look different on a blood smear?
M. hemofelis is single cocci
M. hemocanis forms strings of cocci
How is hemoplasmosis transmitted?
Injection, blood sucking arthropods, TICKS (dogs), transplacental, biting
Which animals are most susceptible to hemplasmosis?
outdoor male cats who are fighting with FeLV/FIV+
What is the pathogenesis of hemoplasmosis in cats?
Pre-bacteremic phase (1-3 weeks post infection)
Acute phase (cyclical fluctuations in organism numbers and
, can see organisms on smears. Anemia from immune mediated splenic sequestration. Splenectomy very bad)
Recovery phase (2/3 of cats)
Chronic phase (no CS)
What conditions make hemoplasmosis worse?
FeLV / FIV+
Stress may re-activate
What are the CS of hemoplasmosis?
"Feline infectious anemia"
No clinical signs (especially M. haemominutum and turicensis)
Pallor (anemia) -> hemic murmur
How is hemoplasmosis dx?
Organism visualization with Wright’s stain (seen in 50% cats in the acute phase, usually present in dogs)
R/O basophilic stippling, Cytauxzoon, H-J bodies
Nonregenerative then regenerative anemia (reticulocyte counts are invalid)
PCR - test of choice
What are the ddx for hemoplasmosis?
Primary AIHA (super rare!)
Toxins (onions, ingestion of local anesthetics)
What is the txt for hemoplasmosis?
Supportive (blood transfusions)
Consider prednisone for AIHA
How is hemoplasmosis prevented?
House cats indoors (no more fighting)
Screen blood donor cats!
What are the characteristics of Bartonella?
Small, curved, g- bacteria
Chronic, largely subclinical infections in cats
What are the CS of bartonella?
What causes bartonella in cats?
Bartonella henselae infected fleas (maybe ticks)
What causes bartonella in dogs?
B. vinsonii berkhoffii infected R. sanguineus
What are the human CS of bartonella, who gets it, and what is the px?
Erythematous papule, then fever and local lymphadenopathy
What is the pathogenesis of bartonella?
B. henselae lives WITHIN RBC and endothelial cells
Probably infects macrophages
How is bartonella dx?
Not seen on blood smears
Serology (IFA or ELISA)
: dogs often seropositive, culture negative; not useful in cats due to high prevalence of subclinical bacteremia, cats can also be culture positive and seronegative
: silver staining
Culture for bartonella
: frozen EDTA blood
How is bartonella tx?
No single drug effective in all cases – start with doxycycline
Limit treatment to cats with immunocompromised owners and dogs with confirmed bartonellosis
What is the leading cause of feline mortality?
What are the CS of FeLV?
bone marrow disorders
What are the characteristics of FeLV?
Which animals are susceptible to FeLV?
neonates with no maternal abs
cats < 16 weeks old
10-15% older cats with prolonged exposure
What is the pathogenesis of FeLV infection?
local LNs -> monocytic cells -> systemic LNs (can see virus in tears, urine, feces, saliva)
good immune response -> regressor cat clears infection with time
partial immune response -> transient viremia, latent infection -> FeLV- malignancy
poor immune response -> persistent viremia and shedding -> FeLV+ disease
What is the prognosis for FeLV?
most will die within 4 years
What are some FeLV-related diseases?
-then consider multicentric, renal lymphomas, GIT (usually FeLV- but now most common)
leukemia with pancytopenia
myelodysplasia and myelofibrosis -> NNN anemia (look for macrocytosis)
How is FeLV dx?
ELISA for screening
re-test with ELISA 3 months later to see if they've cleared it, or IFA right away
How is FeLV tx?
Chemo (weeks - months)
blood transfusion, Epo
abx for secondary infex
What cats are most likely to have FIV?
older than 6 years
transmitted by saliva (biting)
What are the cellular targets of FIV?
T helper lymphocytes
Is FeLV or FIV more like to cause neoplasia?
What are the CS of terminal phase FIV?
How is the testing for FIV and FeLV different?
FeLV looking for Ag!
FIV looking for Ab!!
How is FIV dx?
ELISA snap test