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How do hemoplasma spp look different on a blood smear?
- M. hemofelis is single cocci
- M. hemocanis forms strings of cocci
How is hemoplasmosis transmitted?
Injection, blood sucking arthropods, TICKS (dogs), transplacental, biting
Which animals are most susceptible to hemplasmosis?
outdoor male cats who are fighting with FeLV/FIV+
What is the pathogenesis of hemoplasmosis in cats?
- Pre-bacteremic phase (1-3 weeks post infection)
- Acute phase (cyclical fluctuations in organism numbers and decreased HCT, can see organisms on smears. Anemia from immune mediated splenic sequestration. Splenectomy very bad)
- Recovery phase (2/3 of cats)
- Chronic phase (no CS)
What conditions make hemoplasmosis worse?
- FeLV / FIV+
- Stress may re-activate
- Immunosuppressive disease
What are the CS of hemoplasmosis?
- "Feline infectious anemia"
- No clinical signs (especially M. haemominutum and turicensis)
- Sometimes splenomegaly
- Acute fever
- Pallor (anemia) -> hemic murmur
- Terminal hypothermia
How is hemoplasmosis dx?
- Organism visualization with Wright’s stain (seen in 50% cats in the acute phase, usually present in dogs)
- R/O basophilic stippling, Cytauxzoon, H-J bodies
- Nonregenerative then regenerative anemia (reticulocyte counts are invalid)
- PCR - test of choice
What are the ddx for hemoplasmosis?
- Primary AIHA (super rare!)
- Toxins (onions, ingestion of local anesthetics)
What is the txt for hemoplasmosis?
- Supportive (blood transfusions)
- Consider prednisone for AIHA
How is hemoplasmosis prevented?
- House cats indoors (no more fighting)
- Screen blood donor cats!
What are the characteristics of Bartonella?
- Small, curved, g- bacteria
- Hemotrophic, agyrophilic
- Chronic, largely subclinical infections in cats
What are the CS of bartonella?
- Vasculoproliferative disease
What causes bartonella in cats?
Bartonella henselae infected fleas (maybe ticks)
What causes bartonella in dogs?
B. vinsonii berkhoffii infected R. sanguineus
What are the human CS of bartonella, who gets it, and what is the px?
- Immunocompetent humans
- Erythematous papule, then fever and local lymphadenopathy
- Usually self-limiting
What is the pathogenesis of bartonella?
- B. henselae lives WITHIN RBC and endothelial cells
- Probably infects macrophages
How is bartonella dx?
- Not seen on blood smears
- Serology (IFA or ELISA): dogs often seropositive, culture negative; not useful in cats due to high prevalence of subclinical bacteremia, cats can also be culture positive and seronegative
- Histopathology: silver staining
- Culture for bartonella: frozen EDTA blood
How is bartonella tx?
- No single drug effective in all cases – start with doxycycline
- Limit treatment to cats with immunocompromised owners and dogs with confirmed bartonellosis
What is the leading cause of feline mortality?
What are the CS of FeLV?
- bone marrow disorders
- hemopoietic neoplasia
What are the characteristics of FeLV?
- enveloped RNA
- Oncornavirus, retroviridae
Which animals are susceptible to FeLV?
- neonates with no maternal abs
- cats < 16 weeks old
- 10-15% older cats with prolonged exposure
What is the pathogenesis of FeLV infection?
- oronasal exposure
- local LNs -> monocytic cells -> systemic LNs (can see virus in tears, urine, feces, saliva)
- good immune response -> regressor cat clears infection with time
- partial immune response -> transient viremia, latent infection -> FeLV- malignancy
- poor immune response -> persistent viremia and shedding -> FeLV+ disease
What is the prognosis for FeLV?
most will die within 4 years
What are some FeLV-related diseases?
- mediastinal lymphoma
- -then consider multicentric, renal lymphomas, GIT (usually FeLV- but now most common)
- leukemia with pancytopenia
- myelodysplasia and myelofibrosis -> NNN anemia (look for macrocytosis)
- peripheral lymphadenopathy
- neuro signs
How is FeLV dx?
- ELISA for screening
- re-test with ELISA 3 months later to see if they've cleared it, or IFA right away
How is FeLV tx?
- Chemo (weeks - months)
- blood transfusion, Epo
- abx for secondary infex
What cats are most likely to have FIV?
- outdoor cats
- older than 6 years
- transmitted by saliva (biting)
What are the cellular targets of FIV?
- T helper lymphocytes
Is FeLV or FIV more like to cause neoplasia?
What are the CS of terminal phase FIV?
- weight loss
- skin disease
- ocular disease
How is the testing for FIV and FeLV different?
- FeLV looking for Ag!
- FIV looking for Ab!!
How is FIV dx?
ELISA snap test