Chapters 10-12: Nervous system

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nspaulding
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Chapters 10-12: Nervous system
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2013-02-26 12:29:34
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Human Body in Health and Wellness and Terminology, Chapters 10-12
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  1. 5 Sets of spinal nerves
    • cervical - 8
    • Thoracic - 12
    • Lumbar - 5
    • Sacral - 5
    • Coccygeal - 1
  2. Phrenic
    Associated with breathing, diaphragm
  3. Axillary
    muscles of shoulder - crutch palsy
  4. Radial
    Posterior arm, forearm, hand, thumbs, and first 2 fingers

    Wristdrop - inability to lift or extend wrist
  5. Median
    forearm and some hand muscles

    inability to pick up small objects
  6. Ulnar
    wrist and many muscles of the hand

    clawhand - inability to spread fingers apart
  7. intercostal
    rib cage

    impaired breathing
  8. femoral
    lower abdomen, anterior thigh, medial leg, foot

    inability to extend leg and flex hip
  9. sciatic
    lower trunk, posterior thigh, and leg

    inability to extend hip and flex knee
  10. common peroneal
    lateral area of leg and foot

    footdrop - inability to dorsiflex foot
  11. tibial
    posterior area of leg and foot

    shuffling gait caused by the inability to invert and dorsiflex foot
  12. hemispherectomy
    • hemi - half
    • sphere - sphere, round
    • ectomy - cutting out

    removal of a cerebral hemisphere to treat intractable epilepsy
  13. polyneuropathy
    • poly - many
    • neur/o - nerve
    • pathy - disease process

    A general term describing a disorder of several peripheral nerves
  14. dysphagia
    • dys - difficult, bad
    • phag/o - swallowing, eating
    • ia - condition

    condition of difficulty swallowing
  15. fasciculation
    involuntary contraction of small local muscles
  16. tremors
    rhythmic, purposeless, skeletal muscle movements
  17. Amnesia
    loss of memory caused by brain damage or severe emotional trauma
  18. hydrocephalus
    • hydro - water
    • cephalus - head

    Condition of abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain
  19. anencephaly
    • an - no, not, without
    • encephaly - brain

    a congenital lack of formation of major portions of the brain
  20. meningocele
    saclike protrusion of the meninges
  21. spina bifida
    • spin/o - spine
    •  bi - 2
    • fida - split

    Condition in which the spinal column has an abnormal opening that allows protrusion of the meninges and/or spinal cord.
  22. meningitis
    • mening/o - meninges
    • itis - inflammation

    Any infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, most commonly due to viral infections, although more severe strains are bacterial or fungal in nature
  23. alzheimer's disease
    Progressive neurodegenerative disease in which patients exhibit an impairment of cognitive functioning.
  24. PPS
    Post Polio Syndrome

    Although poliomyelitis has been eradicated - some patients who had polio report symptoms of exhaustion and muscle and joint pain decades after their initial illness
  25. MS
    Multiple sclerosis

    neurodegenerative disease characterized by destruction of the myelin sheaths on CNS neurons and their abnormal replacement by the gradual accumulation of hardened plaques
  26. epilepsy
    • epi - above
    • lepsy - seizure

    group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures
  27. causalgia
    • caus/o - burning
    • -algia - pain

    Nerve pain described by patients as burning pain
  28. diplegia
    • di - two
    • plegia - paralysis

    Paralysis of the same body part on both sides of the body
  29. meningioma
    • meningi/o - meninges
    • oma - tumor/ mass

    slow growing, usually benign tumor of the meninges
  30. hematoma
    • hemat/o - blood
    • oma - tumor/mass

    refers to blood clots and generally caused by trauma
  31. hemiparesis
    weakness or slight paralysis on the left/right side of the body

    • hemi - half
    • paresis - slight paralysis, weakness
  32. contralateral
    • contra - opposite
    • later/o - side
    • al - pertaining to 

    pertaining to opposite sides
  33. vertigo
    dizziness
  34. aphasia
    • a - without
    • phas/o - speech
    • ia - condition

    inability to speak or understand speech
  35. syncope
    fainting
  36. TIA
    Transient Ischemic Attack

    temporary ischemia due to occlusion or cerebral hemorrhage
  37. Lumbar Puncture
    Procedure to aspirate CSF from lumbar subarachnoid space

    "spinal tap"

    used to detect pathogens and abnormalities

    "L3 - L4"
  38. Pathology
    • Path/o - disease
    • logy - study of


    study of disease
  39. Parasympathetic Response
    • Heart - decreases rate
    • Bronchial Tubes - constricts (lower airflow)
    • Iris - pupil constricts
    • blood vessel - no innervation
    • sweat glands - no innervation
    • intestine - stimulates motility, secretion
    • uterus - no effect
    • adrenal medulla - no effect
    • salivary gland - stimulates watery secretion
    • bladder wall - contracts
    • internal sphincter - opens
  40. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Fight or Flight

    • Heart - increases rate
    • Bronchal tubes - dilate
    • iris - dilates pupil
    • blood vessels - constrict
    • sweat glands - stimulates
    • intestine - inhibits motility and secretion
    • uterus - relaxes muscle
    • adrenal medulla - stimulates secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine
    • salivary - stimulates thick secretion
    • bladder wall - relaxes
    • sphincter - closes
  41. 2 divisions of ANS
    (Autonomic Nervous System)
    • Sympathetic - fight or flight
    • parasympathetic - feed and breed
  42. Autonomic Nervous System
    part of the peripheral nervous system that supplies motor activity to the visceral effector organs - glands, smooth muscles within organs, and heart
  43. Contusion
    A bruise of the brain involving a torn cerebral or meningeal blood vessel
  44. concussion
    Transient loss of consciousness usually after brain trauma
  45. CVA
    cerebrovascular accident

    commonly called a brain attack

    caused by sudden lack of blood, causing oxygen deprivation, and brain damage
  46. Division of the Nervous system and organs in each
    Central nervous system - brain, spinal cord

    Peripheral Nervous system - nerves and neuroglia
  47. Polysomnography
    • Poly - many
    • Somno - sleep
    • Graphy - recording

    measurement and record of a number of functions while the patient is asleep

    most often used to diagnose sleep apnea
  48. Ventriculocisternostomy
    • ventriculo - ventricle
    • cisterno - box,cistern
    • stomy - making a new opening

    The creation of an new opening between a blocked ventricle and a cerebral cistern

    Used to treat hydrocephalus
  49. Vestibulocochlear
    sense of hearing and balance
  50. facial
    facial expressions, secretion of saliva and tears, taste, blinking
  51. Trochlear
    movement of the eyeball
  52. Oculomotor
    movement of the eyeball, raising of eyelid, change in pupil size
  53. 3 functions of nervous system
    • sensory
    • integrative
    • motor
  54. 4 major areas of the brain
    • cerebrum
    • diencephalon
    • brain stem
    • cerebellum
  55. Frontal lobe
    executive functions, motor, personality, behavior, emotional expression
  56. Parietal Lobe
    somatosensory area - temp, pain, light touch, proprioception
  57. 4 lobes of cerebrum
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
  58. occipital lobe
    vision and vision related reflexes and functions


    cerebral lobe that contains the primary visual cortex
  59. temporal lobe
    hearing, smell, taste, memory storage, part of speech area


    Cerebral lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex
  60. Protecting the CNS
    • Bone
    • Meninges
    • CSF
    • Blood brain barrier
  61. Meninges
    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Pia Mater
  62. 3 functions of the spinal cord
    sensory, motor, reflex
  63. Olfactory
    sense of smell
  64. Optic
    sense of sight
  65. Cerebellum
    Smooths out and coordinates voluntary muscle movements, helps in the maintenance of balance and muscle tone

    reflexes, motor activity, evaluates sensory input
  66. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus - relay structure and processing structure for most sensory info going to the cerebrum
    • Hypothalamus - integrating system for the ANS regulation of temperature, water balance, sex, thirst, pituitary and endocrine functions
  67. Brain Stem
    • Midbrain - Relays info associated with visual reflexes
    • Pons - Relays info, plays a role in respiration
    • Medulla oblongata - Vital center and emetic center
  68. Neuroglia
    support, protect, and nourish the neurons
  69. Neurons
    conduct the nerve impulse
  70. Three parts of a neuron
    dendrites, cell body, axon

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