Ed. Psych. Ch. 5-7

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Ed. Psych. Ch. 5-7
2013-02-26 16:09:12
Educational Psychology Learning Conditioning Memory Notes Direct Instruction Practice

test in ed psych
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  1. What are Behavioral Learning Theories ?
    explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior

    focus on how consequences affect behavior
  2. What are Social Learning Theories
    learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action
  3. What are Cognitive Learning Theories?
    explanations of learning that focus on mental processes

    emphasizes unobservable mental processes that people use
  4. What are characteristics learned at birth?
  5. What is a Stimuli?
    environmental conditions that acitvate the senses
  6. Pavlov came up with the ________ learning theory from his experiments with the ___________.
    Classical Conditioning

    Digestive process in dogs
  7. What is a Unconditioned Stimulus and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
    stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response

    The Meat
  8. What is a Unconditioned Response and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
    a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus

    dog salivating
  9. What is a Neutral Stimuli and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
    stimuli that have no effect on a particular response

    The bell at the beginning of the experiment
  10. What is a Conditioned Stimuli and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
    previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus

    The bell after it has been used alongside the meat for a while
  11. What is a Conditioned Response and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
    process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response

    The Dog salivating after it associates the bell with the meat
  12. Skinner came up with the ________ learning theory from his experiments with the ___________.
    Operant Conditioning 

    Skinner Box
  13. What is the Skinner Box? How did it work?
    an apparatus developed by B F Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning

    an animal, usually a lab rat, would be in a box and it would learn that from pushing a lever it would be rewarded with something
  14. What are Operant behaviors?
    behaviors that operate on the environment in the apparent absence of any unconditioned stimuli (ex. Food)
  15. What are Consequences?
    pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
  16. What is a Reinforcer?
    a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
  17. What are Primary Reinforcers?
    food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need
  18. What are Secondary Reinforcers?
    consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
  19. What are Positive Reinforcers?
    pleasurable consequences given to strengthen behavior
  20. What are Negative Reinforcers?
    release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior NOT PUNISHMENT
  21. What is the Premack Principal?
    rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities
  22. What are Intrinsic Reinforcers?
    behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
  23. What are Extrinsic Reinforcers?
    praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise
  24. When should one consider punishment?
    avoid if possible, but make sure you try all possible reinforcement strategies before thinking about punishment
  25. What is Punishment?
    unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior
  26. What is Presentation Punishment?
    aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to weaken the chances that the behavior will occur again
  27. What is an Aversive Stimulus?
    unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
  28. What is Removal Punishment?
    withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that a behavior will recur
  29. What is Response Cost?
    procedure where you charge misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges

    example: you charge them with one min of homework time for every time the behavior occurs
  30. What is a Time Out?
    procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced

    this deprives a student who has misbehaved on their reinforcer
  31. What is the relationship between the consequences and immediacy?
    the more timely the consequence, the more likely it would affect the behavior and it makes clear the connection between behavior and consequence
  32. What is Shaping?
    teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps towards the desired goal
  33. What is Extinction?
    weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
  34. What is a Schedule of Reinforcement?
    frequency with which reinforcers are given, that amount of time that elapses between opportunities for reinforcement and the predictability of reinforcement
  35. What is a Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR)?
    desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
  36. What is a Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR)?
    desired behavior is rewarded following  an unpredictable number of behaviors
  37. What is a Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI)?
    desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
  38. What is a Variable-Interval Schedule (VI)?
    desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
  39. What is a Cue?
    signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished
  40. What is an Antecedent Stimuli?
    events that precede behaviors
  41. What is Discrimination?
    perception of and response to differences in stimuli
  42. What is the Generalization?
    carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another
  43. What is Modeling?
    imitation of others' behavior
  44. What is Observational Learning?
    learning by observation and imitation of others
  45. What are the 4 phases of Observational Learning?

    1. Attentional - paying attention to a model

    2. Retention - behavior the teachers want students to learn

    3. Reproduction - students match the behavior

    4. Motivational - students imitate the model in hopes of being reinforced
  46. What is the concept of Bandura's modeling?
    People learn by seeing others reinforced or punished for engaging in certain behaviors
  47. What is Vicarious Learning?
    learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behaviors
  48. What is Cognitive Behavior Modification?
    procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction
  49. What is an Information-Processing Model?
    cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind
  50. What is Sensory Register?
    component of the memory system in which information is received and held for a very short period of time (seconds)
  51. What are some ways to gain attention?
    Use cues to indicate importance like gestures

    Increase emotional content of material

    Inform students that what follows is important
  52. What is Short-Term, Working Memory?
    limited amount of information that can be stored for a few seconds

    can use rehearsal to help retain
  53. What is our Working Memory Capacity?
    we can think about 5-9 distinct things at a time
  54. What is Long Term Memory?
    large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time
  55. What is Episodic Memory?
    Part of long term memory that stores images of our personal experiences
  56. What is Flashbulb Memory?
    important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory
  57. What is Semantic?
    part of long term memory that stores facts and general knoweldge
  58. What is a Scheme?
    mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information
  59. What is Procedural?
    part of long term memory that stores information about how to do things
  60. What are the 3 Parts of Long-Term Memory?

    1. E_____

    2. S_____

    3. P_____
    1. Episodic 

    2. Semantic

    3. Procedural
  61. What is the Dual Code Theory of Memory?
    suggests that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only of of those two ways
  62. What is Interference?
    inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory
  63. What is Retroactive Inhibition?

    "______ learning affects ______ Learning"
    decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning new information

    "Later, Earlier"
  64. What is Proactive Inhibition?

    "______ learning affects ______ Learning"
    decreased ability to learn new information caused by interference from existing information

    "Earlier, Later"
  65. What is Proactive Facilitation?
    increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information
  66. What is Retroactive Facilitation?
    increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new informaion
  67. What are the Primacy and Recency Effects?
    the tendency for items at the beginning of a list and end of a list to be more easily recalled then others
  68. What is Automaticity?
    a level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort

    ex. reading
  69. What is Massed Practice?
    technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time
  70. What is Distributed Practice?
    technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time
  71. What are Mnemonics?
    devices or strategies for aiding the memory
  72. What is the Keyword Method?
    a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items
  73. What is Paired-Associate Learning?
    learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled
  74. What is Imagry?
    mental visualization of images to improve memory
  75. What is Serial Learning?
    memorization of a series of items in a particular order
  76. What is the Loci Method?
    mnemonic strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations
  77. What is the Pegword Method?
    mnemonic strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers
  78. What is the Initial-Letter Strategy?
    strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into more easily remembered words or phrases
  79. What is the Free-Recall Method?
    involves learning of a lists of items in any order
  80. What is rote learning?
    memorization of facts or associations that might be essential arbitrary
  81. What is Meaningful Learning?
    mental processing of new information that related to previously learned knowledge
  82. What is Inert Knowledge?
    learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications
  83. What is the Schema Theory?
    states that information is stored in long term memory in schemata which provide a structure for making sense of new information
  84. What are Meta-cognitive Skills?
    methods for learning, studying, or solving problems
  85. What is Outlining?
    representing the main points of material in hierarchical form
  86. What is Concept Mapping?
    diagramming main ideas and the connections between them
  87. What is the PQ4R method?





  88. What are Advance Organizers?
    activities and techniques that orient the students to the material before reading or class presnetation
  89. What is Direct Instruction?
    Approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits information directly to the students

    goal oriented lessons
  90. What are the steps of a Direct Instruction?
    State - - - - objectives

    Review - - - make sure they know the concepts

    Present - - - new material

    Probe - - - ask questions to learn understanding

    Practice - - - independent practice HW, Seat work

    Assess - - - review, give feedback
  91. What is a Mental Set and how can it be established?
    • student's attitude of readiness to begin a lesson
    • make sure they are at class on time, arouse their curiosity, bring humor into drama, provide a road map of the lesson
  92. What is Wait Time?
    how long you wait for a student to answer your question (should be at least 3 seconds)
  93. What are some important concepts of independent practice?
    It needs to be clear

    they have to be successful with learning probes
  94. What are effective ways to teach concepts?
    give instances and non-instances then try to get definition

    give definition then try to get instances and non-pinstances
  95. There is _________ between direct instruction and student achievement.

    There are __________ that direct instruction can improve your basic skills

    mixed results
  96. What is the Transfer of Learning?
    the application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new situations
  97. Transfer of learning Facilitated by:

    1. ***Initial Learning and Understanding -- ___________

    2. Learning in Context -- ___________

    3. Range of Situations -- ___________

    4. ***Real-life -- ____________

    5. Transfer vs Initial -- __________

    6. Explicit Teaching for Transfer -- ___________
    1. depends on whether it was learned or not (*most important*)

    2. learning in a variety of instances

    3. provide examples with ranged difficulty and setting

    4. setting up real life applications

    5. the way you teach it is different then how you transfer it

    6. students can be taught how to transfer one subject to another
  98. What are Whole-Class and Small-Group Discussions?
    Whole - discussion among students where teacher is moderator and students take charge

    Small - discussion among groups of 4-6 students where they work independently of a teacher