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What are Behavioral Learning Theories ?
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior
focus on how consequences affect behavior
What are Social Learning Theories?
learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action
What are Cognitive Learning Theories?
explanations of learning that focus on mental processes
emphasizes unobservable mental processes that people use
What are characteristics learned at birth?
What is a Stimuli?
environmental conditions that acitvate the senses
Pavlov came up with the ________ learning theory from his experiments with the ___________.
Digestive process in dogs
What is a Unconditioned Stimulus and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response
What is a Unconditioned Response and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
What is a Neutral Stimuli and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
stimuli that have no effect on a particular response
The bell at the beginning of the experiment
What is a Conditioned Stimuli and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
The bell after it has been used alongside the meat for a while
What is a Conditioned Response and an example of this from Pavlov's Experiment?
process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
The Dog salivating after it associates the bell with the meat
Skinner came up with the ________ learning theory from his experiments with the ___________.
What is the Skinner Box? How did it work?
an apparatus developed by B F Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning
an animal, usually a lab rat, would be in a box and it would learn that from pushing a lever it would be rewarded with something
What are Operant behaviors?
behaviors that operate on the environment in the apparent absence of any unconditioned stimuli (ex. Food)
What are Consequences?
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
What is a Reinforcer?
a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
What are Primary Reinforcers?
food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need
What are Secondary Reinforcers?
consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
What are Positive Reinforcers?
pleasurable consequences given to strengthen behavior
What are Negative Reinforcers?
release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior NOT PUNISHMENT
What is the Premack Principal?
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities
What are Intrinsic Reinforcers?
behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
What are Extrinsic Reinforcers?
praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise
When should one consider punishment?
avoid if possible, but make sure you try all possible reinforcement strategies before thinking about punishment
What is Punishment?
unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior
What is Presentation Punishment?
aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to weaken the chances that the behavior will occur again
What is an Aversive Stimulus?
unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
What is Removal Punishment?
withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that a behavior will recur
What is Response Cost?
procedure where you charge misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges
example: you charge them with one min of homework time for every time the behavior occurs
What is a Time Out?
procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced
this deprives a student who has misbehaved on their reinforcer
What is the relationship between the consequences and immediacy?
the more timely the consequence, the more likely it would affect the behavior and it makes clear the connection between behavior and consequence
What is Shaping?
teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps towards the desired goal
What is Extinction?
weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
What is a Schedule of Reinforcement?
frequency with which reinforcers are given, that amount of time that elapses between opportunities for reinforcement and the predictability of reinforcement
What is a Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR)?
desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
What is a Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR)?
desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors
What is a Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI)?
desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
What is a Variable-Interval Schedule (VI)?
desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
What is a Cue?
signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished
What is an Antecedent Stimuli?
events that precede behaviors
What is Discrimination?
perception of and response to differences in stimuli
What is the Generalization?
carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another
What is Modeling?
imitation of others' behavior
What is Observational Learning?
learning by observation and imitation of others
What are the 4 phases of Observational Learning?
1. Attentional - paying attention to a model
2. Retention - behavior the teachers want students to learn
3. Reproduction - students match the behavior
4. Motivational - students imitate the model in hopes of being reinforced
What is the concept of Bandura's modeling?
People learn by seeing others reinforced or punished for engaging in certain behaviors
What is Vicarious Learning?
learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behaviors
What is Cognitive Behavior Modification?
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction
What is an Information-Processing Model?
cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind
What is Sensory Register?
component of the memory system in which information is received and held for a very short period of time (seconds)
What are some ways to gain attention?
Use cues to indicate importance like gestures
Increase emotional content of material
Inform students that what follows is important
What is Short-Term, Working Memory?
limited amount of information that can be stored for a few seconds
can use rehearsal to help retain
What is our Working Memory Capacity?
we can think about 5-9 distinct things at a time
What is Long Term Memory?
large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time
What is Episodic Memory?
Part of long term memory that stores images of our personal experiences
What is Flashbulb Memory?
important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory
What is Semantic?
part of long term memory that stores facts and general knoweldge
What is a Scheme?
mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information
What is Procedural?
part of long term memory that stores information about how to do things
What are the 3 Parts of Long-Term Memory?
What is the Dual Code Theory of Memory?
suggests that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only of of those two ways
What is Interference?
inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory
What is Retroactive Inhibition?
"______ learning affects ______ Learning"
decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning new information
What is Proactive Inhibition?
"______ learning affects ______ Learning"
decreased ability to learn new information caused by interference from existing information
What is Proactive Facilitation?
increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information
What is Retroactive Facilitation?
increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new informaion
What are the Primacy and Recency Effects?
the tendency for items at the beginning of a list and end of a list to be more easily recalled then others
What is Automaticity?
a level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort
What is Massed Practice?
technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time
What is Distributed Practice?
technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time
What are Mnemonics?
devices or strategies for aiding the memory
What is the Keyword Method?
a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items
What is Paired-Associate Learning?
learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled
What is Imagry?
mental visualization of images to improve memory
What is Serial Learning?
memorization of a series of items in a particular order
What is the Loci Method?
mnemonic strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations
What is the Pegword Method?
mnemonic strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers
What is the Initial-Letter Strategy?
strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into more easily remembered words or phrases
What is the Free-Recall Method?
involves learning of a lists of items in any order
What is rote learning?
memorization of facts or associations that might be essential arbitrary
What is Meaningful Learning?
mental processing of new information that related to previously learned knowledge
What is Inert Knowledge?
learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications
What is the Schema Theory?
states that information is stored in long term memory in schemata which provide a structure for making sense of new information
What are Meta-cognitive Skills?
methods for learning, studying, or solving problems
What is Outlining?
representing the main points of material in hierarchical form
What is Concept Mapping?
diagramming main ideas and the connections between them
What is the PQ4R method?
What are Advance Organizers?
activities and techniques that orient the students to the material before reading or class presnetation
What is Direct Instruction?
Approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits information directly to the students
goal oriented lessons
What are the steps of a Direct Instruction?
State - - - - objectives
Review - - - make sure they know the concepts
Present - - - new material
Probe - - - ask questions to learn understanding
Practice - - - independent practice HW, Seat work
Assess - - - review, give feedback
What is a Mental Set and how can it be established?
- student's attitude of readiness to begin a lesson
- make sure they are at class on time, arouse their curiosity, bring humor into drama, provide a road map of the lesson
What is Wait Time?
how long you wait for a student to answer your question (should be at least 3 seconds)
What are some important concepts of independent practice?
It needs to be clear
they have to be successful with learning probes
What are effective ways to teach concepts?
give instances and non-instances then try to get definition
give definition then try to get instances and non-pinstances
There is _________ between direct instruction and student achievement.
There are __________ that direct instruction can improve your basic skills
What is the Transfer of Learning?
the application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new situations
Transfer of learning Facilitated by:
1. ***Initial Learning and Understanding -- ___________
2. Learning in Context -- ___________
3. Range of Situations -- ___________
4. ***Real-life -- ____________
5. Transfer vs Initial -- __________
6. Explicit Teaching for Transfer -- ___________
1. depends on whether it was learned or not (*most important*)
2. learning in a variety of instances
3. provide examples with ranged difficulty and setting
4. setting up real life applications
5. the way you teach it is different then how you transfer it
6. students can be taught how to transfer one subject to another
What are Whole-Class and Small-Group Discussions?
Whole - discussion among students where teacher is moderator and students take charge
Small - discussion among groups of 4-6 students where they work independently of a teacher