Music 1-25

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Music 1-25
2013-02-26 18:17:22

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  1. Rhythm
    the controlled movement of music in time
  2. Beat
    Regular pulsation: a basic unit of length in musicla time
  3. Accent
    the emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in a measure
  4. Meter
    Organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular pattens notated as measures
  5. measures
    Rythmic group or metricla unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines.
  6. Measure lines
    Vertival lines through the staff that separate meteric units, or measures. Also called barlines
  7. Downbeat
    First beat of the measure, the strongest in any meter
  8. Duple meter
    basic metrical pattern of two beats to a measure
  9. Triple meter
    Basic metrical pattern of three beats to a measure
  10. quadruple meter
    Basic metrical pattern of beats to a measure. Also common time
  11. Simple meter
    Grouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as in duple, triple and quaduple meters
  12. Compound meter
    Meter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two
  13. sextuple meter
    Compound metrical pattern of six beats to a measure
  14. upbeat
    last beat of a measure, a weak beat which anticipates the downbeat
  15. Melody
    succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity
  16. Range
    Distance between the lowest and highest tons of a melody and instrument or a voice
  17. contour
    the overall shape of a melodic line. It can move upward, downward, remain static
  18. Interval
    Distance and relationship between two pitches
  19. Conjunct
    smooth connnecte melody that moves principally by small intervals
  20. Disjunct
    disjointed or disconected melody with many leaps
  21. phrase
    musical unit; often component of a melody
  22. cadence
    resting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation
  23. Frequency
    Rate of vibration of a string or column of air, which determines pitch
  24. nte
    musical symbol denothing pitch and duration
  25. amplitude
    degree of loudness or softhness of a sound
  26. timbre/tone color
    the quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another
  27. rhyme scheme
    the arrangment of rhyming words or corresponding sounds at the end of poetic lines
  28. climax
    the high point in a melodic line or piece of music usually representing the peak of intesnity
  29. Countermelody
    accompanying melody sounded against the princial melody
  30. Sycopation
    deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat
  31. offbeat
    a weak beat or any pulse between the beats in a measured rhytmic pattern
  32. polyrhythm
    the simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and in certain african musics
  33. additive meter
    patterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups common in certain eastern european musics
  34. nonmetric
    music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common incertain non-western musics
  35. Interval
    distance and relationship between two PITCHES
  36. Chord
    simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony
  37. harmony
    the simultaneous combination of notes nad the ensuing relationships off intervals and chords
  38. scale
    series of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key
  39. octave
    Interval betweeen two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower.
  40. Triad
    common chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scale
  41. Tonic
    the first note of the scale or key (keynote)
  42. Tonality
    principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
  43. dissonacne
    combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable in need of resolution
  44. Consonacne
    concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music
  45. drone
    Sustained sounding of one or several tones for harmonic support, a common feature of some folk musics
  46. Half step
    Smallest interval used in the Western system; the octave divides into twelve such intervals; on the piano, the distance between any two adjacent keys whether black or white also semitone.
  47. Chromatic/ chromatic scale
    Melody or Harmony built from many if not all twelve semitones of the octave. A chromatic scale consists of an ascending or descending sequence of semitones
  48. Sharp sign
    Musical symbol that indicates raising a pitch by a semitone
  49. flat
    Musical symbol that indicate slowering a pitch by a semitone.
  50. Whole step
    Interval consissting of two half steps or semitones
  51. key
    defines the relationshi of tones with a common center or tonic. Also a lever on a keyboard or woodwind instrument
  52. Diatonic
    melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. a diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones
  53. Pentatonic
    Five-note pattern used in some African , far eastern and native American musics; can also be found in Western music as an  example of exoticism
  54. tritonic
    three note scale pattern used in the music of some subsaharan african cultures
  55. Heptatonic
    Seven-note scale; in nonWestern musics, often fashioned from a differnt combination of intervals than major and minor scales
  56. Microtone
    Musical interval smaller than a semitone prevalent in some non Western musics and in some twentieth century art music
  57. inflection
    Small alteration of the pitch by a microtonal interval(blue note)
  58. active chords
    In the diatonic system chords which need to resolve the tonic chord. These include the dominant chord and the subdominant chord
  59. Rest chord
    A chord that achieves a sense of resolution or completion, normally the tonic
  60. Dominant
    the fifth scale step (sol)
  61. Subdominant
    the fourth scale step
  62. Modulation
    The process of changing from one key to another
  63. Texture
    the interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and Harmonic (vertical ) elements in the musical fabric
  64. Monophonic
    singleline texture or melody without accompaniment
  65. Heterophonic
    Texture in which two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously often the result of improvisation
  66. Improvisation
    Creation of a musical composition while it si being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation  cadenzas of concertos, jazz and some non Western musics
  67. Polyphony
    two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic
  68. Counterpoint
    the art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines
  69. homophonic
    texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony as distinct from polyphony
  70. homorhythimic
    Texture in which all voices or lines move together in the same rhythm
  71. Imitation
    Melodic idea presented in once voice and then restated in another each part continuing as others enter
  72. Canon
    Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line imitates another at a fixed distance throughout
  73. Round
    Perpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody
  74. Form
    Structure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music.
  75. Repetition
    a compositional technique whereby a passage or section is restated
  76. Contrast
    use of opposing musical elements to emphasize difference and variety
  77. Strophic form
    song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanze (strophe of the poem
  78. Variation
    The com positional procedure of altering a preexisting musical idea
  79. Binary form
    two part form with each section normally repeated
  80. Ternary form
    three part for based on a statement, contrast or departure, and repetion
  81. Theme
    melodic  idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition (subject)
  82. Thematic devellopment/thematic transformation
    Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline harmony or rhythm
  83. Sequence
    restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level
  84. Motive
    Short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic harmonic rhythmic unit
  85. Call and response
    Performance style with a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of follwers
  86. Responsorial singing
    Singing especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir
  87. Ostinato
    A short melodic rhythmic or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
  88. movement
    Complete, self-contained part within a larger musical work
  89. tempo
    rate of speed or pace of music
  90. Dynamics
    Element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness or volume of a sound
  91. Instrument
    Mechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits tem into the air
  92. Register
    Specific area in the range of an instrument or voice
  93. Soprano
    highest ranged voice normally possessed by women or boys
  94. Mezzo-soprano
    femal voice of the middle range
  95. Alto/contralto
    Lowest of the female voices - also Contralto
  96. Tenor
    Male voice of high range. also a part, often structural in polyphony
  97. Baritone
    male voice of the moderately low range
  98. bass
    lowest of the male voices
  99. vibrato
    small fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intesify a sound
  100. Aerophone
    instruments such as a flute whistle or horn that produce sound by usint air as the primary vibrating means
  101. chordophone
    instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretche between two points; the string may be set in motion by bowing striking or plucking
  102. Idiophone
    Instrument that produces sound from the substance of the instument itself by bein struck blown shaken scraped or rubbed. Examples include bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals
  103. membranophone
    Any instrument that produces sound tightly stetched membranes that can be struck plucked rubbed or sung into
  104. bow
    a slightly curved stick with hair or fibers attached at both ends, drawn over the strings of an instrument to set them i nmotion
  105. pluck
    to sound the strings of an instrument using fingers or a piectrum or pick
  106. Violin
    soprano, or highest- ranged, member of the bowed-string instrument family
  107. viola
    bowedstring instrument of middle range; the second higheset member of the violin family
  108. Double
    to perform the same notes with more than one coice or instrument either at the same pitch level or an octave higher or lower.
  109. Violoncello/cello
    Bowed string instrument with a middle to low range and dark rich sonority; lower than a viola
  110. Double bass/ contrabass / bass viol
    Largest and lowest-pitched member of the bowed string family
  111. legato
    Smooth and connected; opposite of staccto
  112. Stacato
    short detached notes marked with a dot above them
  113. Pizzicato
    performance direction to pluck a string of a bowed instrument with the finger
  114. Glissando
    rapid slide through pitches of a scale
  115. double-stop
    Playing two notes simultaneously on a string instrument
  116. Triple-stop
    Playing three notes simultaneously on a string instrument
  117. Quadruple-stop
    Playing four notes simultaneously on a string instrument
  118. Mute
    mechanical device used to muffle the sound of an instrument
  119. Harmonics
    individual pure sounds that are part of any musical tone; in string instruments, crystalline tones in the very high register, produced by lightly touching a vibrating string at a certain point
  120. harp
    Plucked string instrument triangular in shape with strings perpendicular to the soundboard
  121. Arpeggio
    broken chord in which the individual tones are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously
  122. fortissimo
    very loud
  123. Chorus
    Fairly large group of singers who perform together, usually with several on each part . Also a choral movement of a large scale work
  124. Choir
    A group of singers who perform together, usually in parts, with several on each part; often associated with a church
  125. SATB
    Abbreviation for the standard voices in a chorus or choir; Soparano, Alto, Tenor, Bass;
  126. a capella
    choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment
  127. Madrigal choir
    small vocal ensemble that specializeds in a capella secular works
  128. chamber choir
    small group of up to about twenty four signers who usually perform a capella or with piano accompaniment
  129. Chamber music
    Ensemble music for up to about ten players with one player to a part
  130. String quartet
    Chamber music ensemble consisting of two violines viola and cello. multimovement compostion for this ensemble
  131. Piano trio
    standard chamber ensemble of piano with violin and cello
  132. Piano trio
    standard chamber ensemble of piano and violin and cello
  133. Sextet
    chamber music for six instruments or voices
  134. Septet
    Chamber music for seven instruments or voices
  135. Octet
    Chamber music for eight instrumetns of voices
  136. woodwind quintet
    Standard chamber ensemble consisting of one of each of the following: flue, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn (not a woodwind instrument)
  137. brass quintet
    standard chamber enseble made up of two trumpets, horn trombone and tuba
  138. Concert band/ wind ensemble
    Instrumental enseble ranging from forty to eighty members or more, consisting of wind and percussion instruments
  139. Marching band
    Instrumental ensemble for enertainment at sports events and parades, consisting of wind an percussion instruments , drum majors/ majorettes, and baton twirlers
  140. jazz band
    Instrumental ensemble made up of reed (sax and clarinets, brass (trumpets and trombones) and rhythm sections ( percussion piano double bass and sometimes guitar
  141. Rock band
    pop music ensemble that depends on amplified strings percussion electronically generated sounds.
  142. Baton
    A thing stick, usually painted white used by conductors
  143. Concertmaster
    the first chair violinist of a symphony orchestra
  144. Sacred music
    religious or spiritual music
  145. Secular music
    non religious music
  146. Genre
    general term  describing the standard character of a work
  147. Symphony
    large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements
  148. Form
    Structure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast and variation; the organizing principle of music
  149. Medium
    Perfoming forces employed in a certain musical work
  150. Opus number
    A number, often part of the title of the piece, designating the work in chronological relationship to other works by the same composer
  151. Oral transmission
    Preservation of music without the aid of written notation
  152. Crossover
    recording or artist that appeals primarily to one audience but becomes popular with another as well
  153. Style
    Characteristic manner of persentation of musical elements
  154. patronage
    sponsorship of an artist or a musician , historically by a member of the wealthy or ruling classes.
  155. Liturgy
    The set order of religious services sand the structure of each service  and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination
  156. Gregorian chant/plainchant /plainsong
    Monophonic melody with a freely flowing , unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church
  157. Syllabic
    melodic style with one note to each syllable of text
  158. Neumatic
    melodic style with two to four notes set to each syllabel
  159. melismatic
    melodic style characterized by many notes sung to a single text syllable
  160. Neumes
    early musical notation signs; square notes on a fourline staff
  161. Mode
    Scale or sequence of notes used as the basis for a composition; major and minor are modes
  162. modal
    Charcterizes music that is based on modes other than major and minor especially the early church modes
  163. Divine Offices
    Cycle of daily services  of the Roman Cathlic church distinct from the MASS
  164. Mass
    central service of the Roman Catholic Church
  165. Proper
    Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass that vary from day to day throughout the chruch year according to the particular liturgical occasion as distinct from the Ordinary
  166. Ordinary
    Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass, Remains same from day to day throughout the church year
  167. Kyrie
    The first item of the Ordinary in the Roman Catholic Mass its construction is three fold involving three repetions of Kyrie elesion then christe elesion and again of kyrie eleision
  168. Antiphonal
    perfomance style in which an ensemble is divided into two or more groups perfoming in alternation and then together
  169. Latin
    Ancient language of the Roma Empire; the language inthe middle ages and Renaissance; also the exclusive language of the Roman Catholic liturgy until the mid-twentieth century
  170. Organum
    Earliest kind of polyphoinc music  which developed form the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely.
  171. oblique motion
    Polyphonic voice movement in which one voice remains stationary while the others move
  172. Contrary motion
    motion in opposite directions between individual parts in a polyphonic work
  173. Rhytmic modes
    Fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes, popular in the thirteenth century
  174. Motet
    polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the Middle ages but sacred or devotional therafter.
  175. Chanson
    French monophonic or polyphonic song,  especially of the middle ages and renaissance set to either courtly or popular poetry
  176. madrigal
    renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem
  177. word painting
    musical pictorializing of words from the text as an expressive device, a prominent feature of the Renaissance madrigal
  178. Madrigalisms
    striking effect designed to depict the meaning of the text in vocal music: found in many madrigals and other genres of the sixteenth through eighteeth centuries.
  179. Phrygain
    One of the church modes often associated with a somber mood; built on the pitch E using only white keyes
  180. Pavane
    Stately Renaissance court dance in duple meter
  181. Saltarello
    italian "jumping dance' often characterized by triplets in a rapid 4/4 time
  182. Galliard
    Lively Triple meter French court dance
  183. Allemande
    German Dance in moderate duple time, popular during the Renaissance and Baroque periods often the first movement of a Baroque suite
  184. Ronde
    Lively Renaissance Round dance associated iwth the outdoors in which the participants danced in a circle or a line
  185. Embellishment
    melodic decoration, either improvised or indicated through ornamentation signs in the music
  186. Canzona
    Late sixteenth and early seventeenh cenury instrumental genre featuring contrasting sections with contrapuntal versus homophonic textures and changing meters
  187. Monody
    Vocal Style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaiment
  188. Camerata
    literally Italian for salon: a gathering for literary artistics musical or philosophical discussions notably the Fliorentine amarata at the end of the sixteenth century
  189. Figured Bass
    Baroque practive consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer
  190. Basso continuo
    Italian for "continuous bass" refers to performance group with bass chordal instrument and one bass melody instrument
  191. Major-minor tonality
    A harmonic system based on the use of Major and minor scales widely practivced from the seventeeth to the late nineteeth centur
  192. Equaltemperament
    tuning system based on the division of the octave into twelve equal half steps; the system used today
  193. doctrine of the affections
    Baroque doctrine of the union of text and music
  194. Castrato
    Male singer who was castrated druing boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in seventheenth and early eighteenth century opera
  195. Opera
    Musical drama that is generally sung throughout, combinng the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dram acting and pantomime scenery and costumes
  196. Recitative
    Solo vocal declamatin that follows the inflection of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera cantata and oratoria can be secco or accompagnato
  197. Secco
    Recitative singing style that features a sparse accompaniment and moves with great freedom
  198. accompagnato
    accompanied ( recitative that is accompanied by orchestra
  199. Aria
    Lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment generally expressing intense emotion found in opera cantata an oratorio.
  200. Da capo aria
    lyric song in ternary or A B A form commonly found in operas cantatas and oratorios
  201. overture
    an inroductory movement as in opera or oratorio often presening melodies from arias to come. Also an orchestral work for concert performance
  202. Sinfonias
    short orchestral work, found in Baroque opera to facilitate scene changes
  203. Librettist
    The author of a libretto
  204. Libretto
    Text or script of an opera oratorio cantata or musical written by a librettist
  205. Ground bass
    A repeating melody usually in the bas throughout a vocal or instrumental composition
  206. Masque
    English Genre of aristocratic entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance, developed during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
  207. Homepipe
    country dance of British Isles often in a lively triple meter optional dacne movement of solo and orchestral baroque suite a type of duple meter hompipe is still popular in irish traditional dance music.
  208. Cantata
    Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and insrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It genreally consists of several movements including recitaatives arias and esemble numbers
  209. Oratorio
    Large scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque based on a text of religious or serious character perfomed by solo voices chorus and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action
  210. Chorale
    Congregational hymn of the German lutheran Church
  211. Collegium musicum
    An association fo amateur musicians popular in the Baroque era. Also a modern university ensemble dedicated to the performance of early music
  212. Bar form
    three part A B A frequently used in music an poetry aparticularly in Germany
  213. ritomello
    short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
  214. Opera seria
    Tragic Italian opera
  215. Ballad
    A form of English street song, popular from the sixteenth throughthe eighteenth centuries Bllads are characterized by narrative content and  strophic form
  216. Balladd opera/dialogue opera
    English comic opera usually featuring spoken dialogue alternating with songs set to popular tunes.
  217. French overture
    Baroque instrumental introduction to an opera ballet, or suite in two sections a slow opening followed by an Allegro, often with a brief reprise of the opening.
  218. Courante
    French Baroque dance, standard movement of the suite in triple meter at a moderate tempo
  219. Sarabane
    stately Spanish Baroque dance type in triple meter, a standard movement of the Baroque suite
  220. jig
    A vigorous dance developed in the British isles, usually in compound meter became fashionable onthe Continent as the gigue; still popular as an Irish traditional dance genre
  221. Gigue
    popular english baroque dance tye a standard movement of the baroque suite in a lively compound meter
  222. minuet
    an elegan triple meter dance type popular in the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries usually in binary form
  223. Gavotte
    Duple meter french Baroque dance type with a moderate to quick tempo
  224. Bourree
    Lively French Baroque dance type in duple meter
  225. Passepied
    French Baroque court dance type; a faster version of the minuet
  226. rondo
    Musical form in the with first section recurs usually in the tonic. In the Classical multimovement cycle it appears as the last movement in various forms incluidng ABABA, ABACA ABACABA
  227. Concerto
    Instrumental genre in several movements of concertos that combines elements of Baroque ritornello
  228. Concerto grosso
    Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments and orchestra
  229. Concertino
    Solo group of instruments in the Baroque concerto grosso
  230. Tutti
    All ; opposite of solo
  231. Ripieno
    The Larger of two ensembles in the Baroque concerto grosso
  232. Program Music
    Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations especially popular in the nineteenth century.
  233. Clavichord
    Stringed Keyboard instrument popular in the Renaissance and Baroque that is capable of unique expressive devices no possible on the harpsichord
  234. Sonata da camera/ Chamber sonata
    Baroque chamber sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances
  235. Sonata da chiesa/church sonata
    Baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church in four movements frequently arranged slow fast slow fast
  236. Trio Sonata
    Baroque chamber sonata type written in three parts: two melody lines and the Basso continuo; requires a total of four players to perfom
  237. Rounded binary form
    Compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first; each section is usually repeated
  238. Grace notes
    Ornamental note, often printed in small type and not performed rhytmically
  239. Passacaglia
    Baroque form in moderately slow triple meter, based on a short, repeated base-line meldoy that serves as  the basis for continuous variation in other voices
  240. Chaconne
    Baroque form similar to the passacaglia, in which the variations are based on a repeated chord progression
  241. Prelude
    Instrumental work preceding a larger work
  242. Toccata
    Virtuoso compostion generally for organ or harpsichord, in a free and rhapsodic style; in the Baroque, it often served as the introduction to a fuge
  243. Chorale Variations
    Baroque organ piece in which a chorale is the basis for a set of variations
  244. Fugue
    polyphoinc form popular in the Baroque era in with one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint
  245. Subject
    main idea or theme of a work as in a fuge
  246. Answer
    Second entry of the subject in a fuge usually pitched fourth below or a fifth above the subject
  247. Exposition
    Opening section. In the Fugue the first section in which the voices enter in turn with the subject. in sonata-allegro form, the first section in which the major thematic material is stated.
  248. Episode
    Interlude or intermediate section in the Baroque fuge that servves as an area of relaxation between statmens of the subject
  249. Augmentation
    Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the origianl
  250. Diminutition
    Statement of a melody in shorter note values, often twice as fast the orginal
  251. Retrograde
    Backward staement of a melody
  252. Inversion
    Mirror or upside-down image of a melody pattern found in fugues and twelve-tone compositions
  253. Stretto
    In a fugue, when enries of the subject occur at faster intervals of time, so that they overlap formiing dense, imitative counterpoint. Stretto usually occurs at the climactic moment near the end.
  254. Troubador
    Medieval poet-musiciansin southern France
  255. Trobaritz
    Female Troubadours, compser poets of southern france
  256. Troveres
    Medieval poet-musicians in northern France
  257. Minnesingers
    Late medieval german poet musician
  258. Estampie
    A dance from prevalent in late medieval France
  259. Ars antiqua
    Polyphonic music style usually french ffrom the period c 1160 -1320
  260. Rondeau
    Medieval and Renaissance fized poetic form and Chanson type with courtly love texts
  261. Ballade
    French poetic form and Chanson type of the Middle ages and Renaissance with courtly love texts. also romantic genre, especially a lyric piano piece
  262. Virelai
    Medieval and Renaissance fixed poetic form and chanson type with courtly love texts
  263. bas
    Medieval category of soft instruments used prinicapally for indoor occasions as distict form haut or loud instruments
  264. Haut
    Medieval category of lound instrumetns used mainly for outdoor occasions as distcit from bas or soft insturments
  265. Recorder
    End blown woodwind instrument with a whistle moutpiece genreally associated with early music
  266. Pipe
    A medieval flute with three holes that is blown at one end through a mouthpiece
  267. Lute
    Pluked string instrument of Middle Eastern orgin popular in western Europe form the late Middle ages to the Eighteenth centure.
  268. Harp
    Plucked-string insturment, triangular in shape with strings perpendicular to the soundboard
  269. Psaltery
    medieval plucked string instrument similar to the modrn qither consisting of a sound vox over which strings were stretched.
  270. Hammered dulcimer
    Metal stringed instrument with a trapezoidal sounds box, struck with hammers; an idiophone
  271. Vielle
    Medieval bowed-sting instrument; the ancestor of the biolin
  272. Shawm
    Meddival wind instrumnet, ancestor of the oboe
  273. Portative organ
    Meieval organ small enough to be carried or set on a table, usually with only one set of pipes
  274. Positive organ
    Small single manual organ, popular in the Renaissance and Baroque eras
  275. Cantus firmus
    Fixed melody "usually of very long notes, often based ona fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularyly in the Renaissance
  276. Vernacular
    The common language spoken by the people, as distinguished form the literary language,  or language of the educated elite
  277. Counter-reformation
    A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that began in the mid-sixteenth century in reaction to the protestant reformation
  278. Concil of Trent
    A council of the Roman catholic Church that convened in Trent, Italy from 1543 to 1565 and dealt with counter-reformation issues, including the reform of liturgical music
  279. Diatonic
    Melody or Harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses pattens of seven whole tones and semitones
  280. Theme
    melodic idea used as a basic building block inthe construction of a compostiton
  281. Thematic development
    Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline harmony or rhythm.
  282. Motive
    Short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodicharmonic rhythmic unit
  283. Sequence
    Restatement of an idea or motive  at a differn pitch level
  284. Ostinato
    A short melodic rhythmic or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
  285. Absolute music
    music that has no literary dramatic or pictorial program
  286. Multimovemnet cycle
    A three or four movement structure uesd in Classical era instrumental music especially the symphony sonata concerta and in chamber music; each movement is in a prescribed tempp and form sometimes called sonata cycle
  287. Sonata-allegro form
  288. The opening movement of the multimovement cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section exposition, developed in the second section (development_ and restated in the thrid section ( recapitulation) also sonata form or first movement form
  289. Expsition
    Opening section. In the Fugue, the first section in which the voices enter in turn with the subject. In sonata- allegro form, the first section in which the major thematic material is stated
  290. Theme group
    Several themes in the same key that funtion as a unit within a section of a form particularly in sonata- allegro form
  291. Bridge
    Transitional passage connceting two sections of a composition; also transition. Also the part of a string instrument that holds the strings in place.
  292. Development
    Structural reshaping of thematic material . Second Section of sonata-allegro form; it moves through a serises of foreign keys while temes from the exposition, are manipulated
  293. Recapitulation
    Thrid section of sonata-allego form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic.
  294. Coda
    The last part of a piece, usually addded to a standard form to bring it to a close
  295. Theme and variations
    Compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in sucessive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multimovement cycle
  296. Melodic variation
    The Procedure in which a melody is altered while certain fetures are manipulated. Often used in them and variations form
  297. Harmonic variation
    The procedure inwhich the chords accompanying a melody are replaced by others. often used in theme and variations form
  298. Rhythmic variation
    The procedure in which note lengths, meter, or tempo, is altered.
  299. Minuet and trio
    An A B A form in a moderate triple meter, oftenthe thrid movement of the classical multimovement cycle
  300. da capo
    An indicationto return to the beginning of a piece
  301. Rounded binary form
    Compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material form the first each section is usually repeated.
  302. Scherzo
    composition in A B A form usually in triple meter; replaced the minuet and trio in the nineteenth century.
  303. Duo sonata
    A chamber group comprised of a soloist with piano. Also in the Baroque period, a sonata for a melody instrument and basso continuo
  304. Piano trio
    Piano vionlin and cello
  305. Divertimento
    Classical instrumental gnre for chamber  ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment. Related to serenade and cassation
  306. Serenade
    classical instrumental genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony often perfomed inthe evening or at social functions. Related to divertimento an cassation
  307. Rocket theme
    Quickly ascending rhytmic melody used in Vlassical era instrumental music; the technique is credited to composers in Mannheim, Germany
  308. Opera buffa
    Italian comic opera, sung thoughout.
  309. Opera seria
    tragic Italian Opera
  310. Singspeil
    Comic German Drama with spken Dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera
  311. Steamroller effect
    a Drawn-out crescendo heard in Classical era instrumental music; a technique credited to compsers in Mannheim germany
  312. Monothematic
  313. work or movement based on a single them
  314. Modified sonata-allegro
    A staement exposition and restatement ( recapitulation) of themes without the development section typical in sonata-allegro form
  315. Janissary music/ Turkish Janissary band
  316. Music of the military corps of the Turkish sultan, characterized by percussion instruments such as triangle, cybals, bell tree, and bass drum as well as trumpets and doublereed instrumetns
  317. cyclical form
    Structure in which musical material such as a theme presented in one movement returns in a later movement.
  318. Cadenza
    Virtuosic solo pjassage in the manner of improvisation, performed near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto
  319. Concerto form/ fist movement concerto form
    Structure commonly used in first movement of concertoes that combines elements of baroque ritornello procedure iwht sonata-allegro form
  320. Requiem mass
    Roman Catholic Mass for the dea
  321. Opera comique
    French comic opera with some spoken dialogue
  322. Buffo
    In opera a male singer of comic roles usually a bass
  323. Viennese school
    Title given to the three prominent composers of the Classical era: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.