Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826
leader of egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. he ruled egypt as an ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. his descendants ruled egypt until overthrown in 1952.
the ottoman province in the balkans that rose up against janissary control in the early 1800s. terrorists from here triggered wwi. after world war ii it became the central province of yugoslavia.
he was sultan of the ottoman empire from 1808-39. he enacted extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms. he abolished the janissaries. he created the tanzimat reforms, which were carried out by his sons.
Sultan Mahmud II
'restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.
a war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between russia on one side and turkey, britain, and france on the other. russia was defeated and the independence of turkey was guaranteed
foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/early 20th centuries: european and us nationals in certain areas of chinese and ottoman cities were granted this right.
last emperor of russia. he ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in world war i. dissolved duma in 1906 his rule ended with the russian revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by bolsheviks.
Tsar Nicholas I
those in mid-nineteenth century russia who believed russia had a special destiny of its own which imitation of western europe would only weaken or pervert.
a movement to promote the independence of slav people. roughly started with the congress in prague; supported by russia. led to the russo-turkish war of 1877.
place in russia on december 14 1825, russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against nicholas i's assumption of the throne after his elder brother constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
restricted all foreign trade to the port of canton (trading season)
peasant rebellion; members of a buddist cult called the white lotus society revolted because of increased taxes and growing government inefficiency
White Lotus rebellion
war between britain and the qing empire that was, in the british view, occasioned by the qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. the victorious british imposed the one-sided treaty of nanking on china. (p. 684)
hereditary military servants of the qing empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)
treaty that concluded the opium war. it awarded britain a large indemnity from the qing empire, denied the qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to britons, and ceded hong kong to britain.
Treaty of Nanking
cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the qing empire and foreign signatories. in the in these cities, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality.
a clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories. (p. 686)
the most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. a christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the qing empire.