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how many knwn vitamins are out there?
4 functions of vitamins
-serve as antioxidants
-regulation of growth and development
- -production or release of energy
- *does not supply only metabolizes energy
(functions of vitamins) What is Hematopoiesis?
production of red blood cells
(functions of vitamins) What are antioxidants?
they prevent unwanted oxidation of other compounds
Which 4 are fat soluble vitamins?
**they can be peed out
Which 2 are water soluble vitamins?
What are pro-vitamins?
they are converted into vitamin A inside the body
What do fat-soluble vitamins do? (2)
-regulate and promote growth and development
-act as antioxidant
What do water soluble vitamins do? (4)
(vitamin digestion and absorption) Mouth
(vitamin digestion and absorption) Stomach
almost none except for Vitamin B-12
(vitamin digestion and absorption) Small intestine
almost all the absorption takes place here
(vitamin digestion and absorption) Liver
transformed to active forms
(vitamin digestion and absorption) Large intestine
very little absorption except for vitamin K
What is antioxidation?
prevention of unwanted oxidation of compounds in the body
What are 5 antioxidants?
What is a free radical?
- an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron
- *it is unstable
What can free radicals do?
they are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell
What are three thigns that free radicals can produce?
What 4 things can free radicals cause damage to?
-proteins in the cell
-genetic material (DNA)
How do vitamins act as antioxidants?
they donate their electrons to free radicals to stabilize them
How do minerals act as antioxidants?
they act with complex enzyme systems to destroy free radicals
- *Superoxide dismultase
- *gluthaione peroxidase
What is vitamin E made off?
(make up of vitamin E) Tocotrienol
(make up of Vit E) Tocopherol
the active portion
3 functions of Vitamin E
-primary role as an antioxidant
- -protects poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
- *membranes are made up of these
-protects low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
5 Sources of Vitamin E
Is vitamin E toxicity common?
What if you dont consume enough vitamin E? (2)
-can result in erythrocyte hemolysis
-deficiencies are uncommon
4 functions of Vitamin C
-synthesis of collagen
-prevents the disease scurvy
-enhances the immune system
Cooking AND Vitamin C
it destroys vitamin C
Consuming too much vitamin C (3)
cause diarrhea, nausea, nosebleeds
What is most common vitamin C deficiency?
- *bleeding gums, loose teeth, weakness
2 characteristics of beta-carotene
what 3 thigns are carotenoids known for?
-enhances the immune system
-protect skin from damage by UV light
-protect eyes from damage
2 functions of beta-carotene`
-effective against oxidation in cell membranes and LDLs
Is consuming too muhc beta-carotene toxic? Are there any symptoms for deficiency?
no it does not appear to be for both cases
Where is excess of Vitamin A stored? (4)
What are 3 active forms of vitamin A?
5 functions of vitamin A
-essential for proper vision
- *protects LDL
-sperm prodcuton and fertilization
What is cell differentation?
process by which cells mature and specialize
What happens from consuming too muhc vitamin A? (3)
-birth defects and permanent damage to eye and liver
Not consuming enough vitmain A will lead to?
Are enzymes required for metabolic reactons?
yes all of them
-molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function
-vitamins and minerals sometimes act liek this
What are B-complex vtiamins important for?
What is beriberi?
deficiency of thiamin resulting in muscle wasting and nerve damage
Where is thiamin usually found? (2)
enriched foods and whole grains
What is ariboflavinosis?
is a riboflavin deficiency that results in sore throat, swollen mucous membranes
Whats a good source for riboflavin?
What type of B vitaimin is thiamin?
What type of b-vitamin is riboflavin?
What is pellegra?
severe niacin deficiency
What are 4 good sources of niacin?
-enriched bread products