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  1. how many knwn vitamins are out there?
  2. 4 functions of vitamins
    -serve as antioxidants

    -regulation of growth and development


    • -production or release of energy
    • *does not supply only metabolizes energy
  3. (functions of vitamins) What is Hematopoiesis?
    production of red blood cells
  4. (functions of vitamins) What are antioxidants?
    they prevent unwanted oxidation of other compounds
  5. Which 4 are fat soluble vitamins?




    **they can be peed out
  6. Which 2 are water soluble vitamins?
    - B-vitamins

  7. What are pro-vitamins?
    they are converted into vitamin A inside the body
  8. What do fat-soluble vitamins do? (2)
    -regulate and promote growth and development

    -act as antioxidant
  9. What do water soluble vitamins do? (4)
    -energy produciton



    -regulate metabolism
  10. (vitamin digestion and absorption) Mouth
    almost none
  11. (vitamin digestion and absorption) Stomach
    almost none except for Vitamin B-12
  12. (vitamin digestion and absorption) Small intestine
    almost all the absorption takes place here
  13. (vitamin digestion and absorption) Liver
    transformed to active forms
  14. (vitamin digestion and absorption) Large intestine
    very little absorption except for vitamin K
  15. What is antioxidation?
    prevention of unwanted oxidation of compounds in the body
  16. What are 5 antioxidants?
    -Vitamin E

    -Vitamin C


    -Vitamin A

  17. What is a free radical?
    • an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron
    • *it is unstable
  18. What can free radicals do?
    they are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell
  19. What are three thigns that free radicals can produce?

    -UV light

    -toxic substances
  20. What 4 things can free radicals cause damage to?
    -cell membranes


    -proteins in the cell

    -genetic material (DNA)
  21. How do vitamins act as antioxidants?
    they donate their electrons to free radicals to stabilize them
  22. How do minerals act as antioxidants?
    they act with complex enzyme systems to destroy free radicals

    • *Superoxide dismultase
    • *catalase
    • *gluthaione peroxidase
  23. What is vitamin E made off?

  24. (make up of vitamin E) Tocotrienol
    inactive portion
  25. (make up of Vit E) Tocopherol
    the active portion
  26. 3 functions of Vitamin E
    -primary role as an antioxidant

    • -protects poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
    • *membranes are made up of these

    -protects low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
  27. 5 Sources of Vitamin E
    -vegetable oils




    -wheat germ

  28. Is vitamin E toxicity common?
  29. What if you dont consume enough vitamin E? (2)
    -can result in erythrocyte hemolysis

    -deficiencies are uncommon
  30. 4 functions of Vitamin C

    -synthesis of collagen

    -prevents the disease scurvy

    -enhances the immune system
  31. Cooking AND Vitamin C
    it destroys vitamin C
  32. Consuming too much vitamin C (3)
    cause diarrhea, nausea, nosebleeds
  33. What is most common vitamin C deficiency?
    • scurvy
    • *bleeding gums, loose teeth, weakness
  34. 2 characteristics of beta-carotene

  35. what 3 thigns are carotenoids known for?
    -enhances the immune system

    -protect skin from damage by UV light

    -protect eyes from damage
  36. 2 functions of beta-carotene`
    -weak antioxidant

    -effective against oxidation in cell membranes and LDLs
  37. Is consuming too muhc beta-carotene toxic? Are there any symptoms for deficiency?
    no it does not appear to be for both cases
  38. Where is excess of Vitamin A stored? (4)

    -adipose tissue


  39. What are 3 active forms of vitamin A?


    -retinoic acid
  40. 5 functions of vitamin A
    -essential for proper vision

    • -antioxidant
    • *protects LDL

    -cell differentation

    -sperm prodcuton and fertilization

    -bone growth
  41. What is cell differentation?
    process by which cells mature and specialize
  42. What happens from consuming too muhc vitamin A? (3)

    -birth defects and permanent damage to eye and liver
  43. Not consuming enough vitmain A will lead to?
    night blindness
  44. Are enzymes required for metabolic reactons?
    yes all of them
  45. COenzymes (2)
    -molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function

    -vitamins and minerals sometimes act liek this
  46. What are B-complex vtiamins important for?
    energy metabolism
  47. What is beriberi?
    deficiency of thiamin resulting in muscle wasting and nerve damage
  48. Where is thiamin usually found? (2)
    enriched foods and whole grains
  49. What is ariboflavinosis?
    is a riboflavin deficiency that results in sore throat, swollen mucous membranes
  50. Whats a good source for riboflavin?
  51. What type of B vitaimin is thiamin?
  52. What type of b-vitamin is riboflavin?
  53. What is pellegra?
    severe niacin deficiency
  54. What are 4 good sources of niacin?



    -enriched bread products
Card Set:
2013-02-27 01:06:36

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