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2013-03-04 14:24:40

chapter 6 ; 7-31 slides
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  1. (health and safety) Are children less vulnerable or more to health threats than in ealrier years? What about chidlren in developing countries? (2)
    -less vulnerable

    • -Children in developing countries are vulnerable to some diseases and illness
    • *its a norm
  2. (health and safety) How does the physical growth rate correlate with their food consumption? (2)
    • -their growth slows down as does their food consumption
    • *their appetite is varies
  3. (health and safety) What can lead to unhealthy eating at this stage?
    their environment favoring unhealthy foods over healthy ones
  4. (health and safety) Is malnutrition a norm for children in developing countries?
  5. (health and safety) (developing country children) What are the two common deficiencies ?
    iron and protein
  6. (health and safety) Lack of protein is experienced by how many percent of chidlren?
  7. (health and safety) What can lack of protein lead to?
    marasmus and kwashiorkor
  8. (health and safety) What can lack of iron defieciecy lead to? (2)

    -fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sustaining attention
  9. (health and safety) Malnutrition is responsible for _________ of early childhood deaths
  10. (health and safety) What does High energy activities lead to in developed countries?
    to higher rates of injuries
  11. (health and safety) Which is most common cause of injury? and where does it ussually happen?
    automobile accidnets in developing countries
  12. (health and safety) (developing countries) What is a larger problem disease or automobile injuries?
  13. (motor development) There are gender differences when it comes to gross and fine motor skills (2)
    -boys better at using strength and size

    -girls better at body coordination
  14. (motor development) What does fine motor development allow for?
    • refinement of skills
    • **drawing shapes, letter
    • ***these can be subjective to the culture experiences
  15. (motor development)(handedness) When can preferences for handedness start showing? (2)
    • during prenatal times when they begin sucking a preferred hand
    • *often time it means the hand they sucked is their preffered
  16. (motor development)(handedness) CAn genetics play part of which hand a kid will prefer?
    -adopted children resemble their biological parents more than adoptive parents
  17. (motor development)(handedness) Identical twins AND handedness
    identical twins will tend to differ becuase of their position in the stomach
  18. (motor development)(handedness) cultural stigma towards left-handedness
    -historically being left handed signified evil
  19. (piagets preoperational stage) Child begins to...(3)
    • internalize images and use symbols
    • *we become representational thinkers
    • **reinforced by language
  20. (piagets preoperational stage) Children are unable to perfomr...
    mental operations that follow certain logic rules
  21. (piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Why do kids lack the ability to understand conservaiton? (2)
    -centration and reversibility
  22. (piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Centration
    focusing on one aspect of a problem while excluding others

    • ex) focuses on one aspect of a problem while excluding others
    • *sees the water bottle length changing but not the width
  23. (piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Reversibility
    • reverse an action mentally
    • *once something happens they cant go back
  24. (piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is conservation?
    principle that the amount of a physical substance remains the same even if its physical appearance changes
  25. (piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is egocentrism?
    • inability to distinguish between your own perspective and another persons perspective
    • *world revolves around the person
  26. (piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is animism? (2)
    -an aspect of egocentrism

    -tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces
  27. (piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) Classification
    • is the ability to understand that objects can be part of more than one cognitive group
    • *yellow flowers are yellow and flowers
  28. 2 stages of Piaget's preoperational stage

  29. (2 stages of piagets preoperational stage) Symbolic function substage
    • capable of representational thought and using symbols
    • *ex) language and play can represent this stage
  30. (2 stages of piagets preoperational stage) Intuitive thought substage
    • capable of asking questions showing curiosity but not why they know things
    • ex) asking why things happen
    • ex)they know things but dont know how they learned it
  31. (2 Of criticisms of Piaget) UnderestimatedĀ children'sĀ abilities (3)
    -young children can do conservation task

    -con perform modified egocentrism task

    -less animistic than Piaget suggested
  32. (2 Of criticisms of Piaget) Development AND How it progresses
    Development is more continuous and less stage-like
  33. What is theory of mind?
    ability to understand the thinking processes in oneself and others
  34. How is thoery of mind identified by? (2)
    • false belief task
    • *If i know something, then everyone else does too
  35. When is theory in mind seen?
    by joint attention and pretend play
  36. Cultural Learning AND Early Childhood
    In early childhood is when children have capacity for learning culturally specific skills

    ex) food preparation, child care, animal care
  37. what are 2 factors that impact differences in cultural learning?
    • -time apart from families in developed countries
    • *at pre school or daycare

    • -complexity of adult activity in the economy
    • *inhibits kids from going to work with parents because most of time perosn needs to be certified to do the jobs. UNlike developing countries where they can learn how to farm etc
  38. traditionally when does early childhood education begin?
    age 7
  39. How early have kids in developed countries stsarted school?
    3-5 years of age
  40. (importance of preschool quality) 3 effects
    -higher verbal skills

    -stronger performance on memry

    -listeining comprehension
  41. 4 quality features that preschool should have
    • -education and training of teacher
    • *dealing with kids

    -class size and child teacher ration

    • -age appropriate materials and activities
    • *not too childish or grownupish

    • -teacher-child interactions
    • *hihg interactions recommended
  42. How many students do experts recommend per classroom in preschool?
    no more than 20
  43. What is the range of 3 year olds per teacher?
    no more than 5-10 per teacher
  44. what is range of 4 year olds per teacher?
    no more than 7-10 per teacher