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(health and safety) Are children less vulnerable or more to health threats than in ealrier years? What about chidlren in developing countries? (2)
- -Children in developing countries are vulnerable to some diseases and illness
- *its a norm
(health and safety) How does the physical growth rate correlate with their food consumption? (2)
- -their growth slows down as does their food consumption
- *their appetite is varies
(health and safety) What can lead to unhealthy eating at this stage?
their environment favoring unhealthy foods over healthy ones
(health and safety) Is malnutrition a norm for children in developing countries?
(health and safety) (developing country children) What are the two common deficiencies ?
iron and protein
(health and safety) Lack of protein is experienced by how many percent of chidlren?
(health and safety) What can lack of protein lead to?
marasmus and kwashiorkor
(health and safety) What can lack of iron defieciecy lead to? (2)
-fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sustaining attention
(health and safety) Malnutrition is responsible for _________ of early childhood deaths
(health and safety) What does High energy activities lead to in developed countries?
to higher rates of injuries
(health and safety) Which is most common cause of injury? and where does it ussually happen?
automobile accidnets in developing countries
(health and safety) (developing countries) What is a larger problem disease or automobile injuries?
(motor development) There are gender differences when it comes to gross and fine motor skills (2)
-boys better at using strength and size
-girls better at body coordination
(motor development) What does fine motor development allow for?
- refinement of skills
- **drawing shapes, letter
- ***these can be subjective to the culture experiences
(motor development)(handedness) When can preferences for handedness start showing? (2)
- during prenatal times when they begin sucking a preferred hand
- *often time it means the hand they sucked is their preffered
(motor development)(handedness) CAn genetics play part of which hand a kid will prefer?
-adopted children resemble their biological parents more than adoptive parents
(motor development)(handedness) Identical twins AND handedness
identical twins will tend to differ becuase of their position in the stomach
(motor development)(handedness) cultural stigma towards left-handedness
-historically being left handed signified evil
(piagets preoperational stage) Child begins to...(3)
- internalize images and use symbols
- *we become representational thinkers
- **reinforced by language
(piagets preoperational stage) Children are unable to perfomr...
mental operations that follow certain logic rules
(piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Why do kids lack the ability to understand conservaiton? (2)
-centration and reversibility
(piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Centration
focusing on one aspect of a problem while excluding others
- ex) focuses on one aspect of a problem while excluding others
- *sees the water bottle length changing but not the width
(piagets preoperational stage)(conservation) Reversibility
- reverse an action mentally
- *once something happens they cant go back
(piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is conservation?
principle that the amount of a physical substance remains the same even if its physical appearance changes
(piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is egocentrism?
- inability to distinguish between your own perspective and another persons perspective
- *world revolves around the person
(piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) What is animism? (2)
-an aspect of egocentrism
-tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces
(piagets preoperational stage)(4 shortcomings in kids) Classification
- is the ability to understand that objects can be part of more than one cognitive group
- *yellow flowers are yellow and flowers
2 stages of Piaget's preoperational stage
(2 stages of piagets preoperational stage) Symbolic function substage
- capable of representational thought and using symbols
- *ex) language and play can represent this stage
(2 stages of piagets preoperational stage) Intuitive thought substage
- capable of asking questions showing curiosity but not why they know things
- ex) asking why things happen
- ex)they know things but dont know how they learned it
(2 Of criticisms of Piaget) Underestimated children's abilities (3)
-young children can do conservation task
-con perform modified egocentrism task
-less animistic than Piaget suggested
(2 Of criticisms of Piaget) Development AND How it progresses
Development is more continuous and less stage-like
What is theory of mind?
ability to understand the thinking processes in oneself and others
How is thoery of mind identified by? (2)
- false belief task
- *If i know something, then everyone else does too
When is theory in mind seen?
by joint attention and pretend play
Cultural Learning AND Early Childhood
In early childhood is when children have capacity for learning culturally specific skills
ex) food preparation, child care, animal care
what are 2 factors that impact differences in cultural learning?
- -time apart from families in developed countries
- *at pre school or daycare
- -complexity of adult activity in the economy
- *inhibits kids from going to work with parents because most of time perosn needs to be certified to do the jobs. UNlike developing countries where they can learn how to farm etc
traditionally when does early childhood education begin?
How early have kids in developed countries stsarted school?
3-5 years of age
(importance of preschool quality) 3 effects
-higher verbal skills
-stronger performance on memry
4 quality features that preschool should have
- -education and training of teacher
- *dealing with kids
-class size and child teacher ration
- -age appropriate materials and activities
- *not too childish or grownupish
- -teacher-child interactions
- *hihg interactions recommended
How many students do experts recommend per classroom in preschool?
no more than 20
What is the range of 3 year olds per teacher?
no more than 5-10 per teacher
what is range of 4 year olds per teacher?
no more than 7-10 per teacher