minerals

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Author:
cassiekay10
ID:
203669
Filename:
minerals
Updated:
2013-02-26 20:49:00
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nutrition
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  1. calcim abbr
    ca
  2. calcium function
    imp for bone/tooth formation; bld clotting, muscle/nerve action; metabolism
  3. most abundant mineral in body
    ca
  4. ca deficiency
    rickets, tetany, osteomalacia, osteoporosis
  5. ca tox
    n/v, decreased appetite, calcium kidney stone
  6. foods w ca
    dairy, green veggies
  7. type of milk w more ca
    skim
  8. phosphorus abbr
    P
  9. phos functions
    works w ca in bone/tooth formation; energy metabolism
  10. def in p
    rare
  11. tox in p
    tetany due to hypocalcemia
  12. foods w p
    dairy, meats, fish, eggs
  13. sodium abbr
    na
  14. sodium dri
    500-2400 mg qd
  15. sodium wnl blood level
    135-145 mEg/L
  16. sodium functions
    maintains bd water/acid base balance; works w potassium (nerve impulses)
  17. def in na
    rare; cool, clammy skin, confusion (hyponatremia)
  18. tox in na
    edema, wt gain, hypertension (hypernatremia)
  19. foods w na
    table salt, salty snacks, canned foods
  20. potassium abbr
    K
  21. K wnl blood level
    3.5-5 mEq/L
  22. k functions
    works w na in body water balance and nerve transmissio
  23. heart muscle is sensitive to what mineral
    k
  24. directions for k
    dilute before giving, esp powder and IV forms
  25. def in k
    rare - usually associated w diurectics, prolonged vomitting/d
  26. s/s of def in k
    • muscle weakness, fatigue, cramping
    • (hypokalemia)
  27. tox in k
    irritability, confusion, abnormal heart rhythm, heart block (hyperkalemia)
  28. foods w k
    oranges, bananas, green leafy veggies
  29. magnesium abbr
    Mg
  30. mg functions
    necessary for metabolism, protein synthesis, muscle action
  31. def in mg
    rare - muscle cramping/weakness, tremors, CNS irritability
  32. tox in mg
    cns depression, coma
  33. mg foods
    nuts, soybeans, cocoa/chocolate, seafood
  34. chloride abbr
    Cl
  35. cl functions
    digestion (forms hydrochloric acid), and respiration (helps carry CO2 to lungs for release)
  36. def in cl
    rare - muscle spasms, alkalosis due to hyperventilation
  37. tox in cl
    acidosis due to co2 retention
  38. foods w cl
    table salt
  39. sulfur abbr
    S
  40. S functions
    structure of hair, nails, skin (collagen)
  41. s def
    rare - def if lack of protein (kwashiorkor)- none reported
  42. tox of s
    rare
  43. if you get enough protein you get enough
    S
  44. foods w s
    proteins (meat, eggs, milk, chees)
  45. __ outside cell, _ inside cell
    na, k
  46. iron abbr
    fe
  47. fe function
    hemoglobin synthesis, o2 transport to cells, works closely w copper
  48. def in fe
    iron def anemis, (fatigue, pallor and low oxygenation)
  49. tox in fe
    increased iron stores, gi cramping, n/v, dark stools, gi bleeding 
  50. food w fe
    meat, liver, eggs
  51. iron absorbs when taken with a ____ source
    vit c
  52. iodine abbr
    I
  53. i functions
    thyroid gland function and thyroxine production; controls metabolism
  54. def in i
    goiter (enlarged thyroid), hypothyroidism (cretinism and myxedema)
  55. tox of i
    acne, iodine goiter
  56. foods w i
    iodized/table salt, seafood
  57. zinc abbr
    zn
  58. zn functions
    protein metabolism, tissue growth/healing, reproduction, immune function
  59. def of zn
    impaired taste/smell, poor wound healing
  60. tox of zn
    n/v/d, deacreased hdl cholesterol levels
  61. foods w zn
    meats, oysters, eggs
  62. selenium abbr
    se
  63. se funtion
    antioxidant, works w vit e; cancer and viral protective effects
  64. se def
    keshan disease (cardiomyopathy in children, caused by low se levels in soil, china)
  65. tox of se
    fatigue, hair loss, brittle nails
  66. foods w se
    seafood, organ meats, grains/nuts/seeds
  67. se must be in ___ where grown
    soil
  68. fluoride abbr
    f
  69. f function
    bonds w ca for strong teeth/bones
  70. f def
    tooth decay (dental carries), possible link to osteoporosis
  71. f tox
    mottling/ discoloration of teeth
  72. foods w f
    flouridated water, tea, fish (toothpaste)
  73. copper abbr
    cu
  74. cu functions
    iron twin - works w iron in energy and hemoglobin productions
  75. cu def
    anemia
  76. cu tox
    n/v/d, h/a
  77. foods w cu
    organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds
  78. menganese abbr
    mn
  79. mn functions
    protein and energy metabolism, bone formation, reproduction, and blood clotting
  80. def in mn
    rare
  81. tox mn
    rare - seen in miners who inhale manganese dust (s/s like parkinsons disease)
  82. foods w mn
    whole grains, cereals, nuts, tea
  83. main functions of micronutrients
    metabolism
  84. do not provide k-cal energy
    true
  85. most come from ___
    soil
  86. we obtain minerals indirectly via
    food chain
  87. # minerals essential to humans
    25
  88. abosrption of minerals depends on
    • 1 food form 
    • 2 body need
    • 3 tissue health
  89. what is absorbed better animal or plant
    animal
  90. body def in a mineral will
    absorb more
  91. healthier tissue absorbs more or less
    more
  92. minerals carry an ____ charge in the bd
    electrical
  93. (+or-) referred to as in this form
    ions/electrolytes
  94. minerals found in ___ or ___ form throughout the bd
    free or combined
  95. patients on lasix or diuretics need ___ potassium
    more
  96. watch labwork closely for __
    K
  97. macominerals (major) amnt needed
    over 100 mg qd
  98. # of macrominerals
    7
  99. microminerals amnt needed
    less than 100 mg qd
  100. # of microminerals
    18
  101. macro are ___
    major
  102. micro are ___
    trace
  103. pregnancy/lactation need more 3
    ca, p, fe
  104. infancy need more
    fe, f
  105. adolescence
    ca, p, fe
  106. vegans
    b12, fe, ca, zn

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