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Is a verbal, social, and rational activity aimed at convincing a reasonable critic of the acceptability of a standpoint.
3 Perspective Argumentation
- Retorical- audience decision makers
- Dialectical-structure & reasoning audience-active participant.
- Logical-formal rules to distinguish sound & unsound argument.
rhetoric by Aristotle
- Logos- "logic" reasoning to influence others
- Ethos- credibility
- Pathos-the use of emotions to convince audience
Principles of communication 4 basic standards.
- Clarity-language choice
- Honesty-using facts and opinions accurately
- Efficiency-ELM domino
- Relevance-audience choose message they like or ignore
embodiment of the spirit of the dialogue / attitude u bring to the process of engaging in arguments.
Variety of moral & ethical perspectives present in contemporary societies.
- Claim- statement being argued (thesis)
- Data- facts used to prove argument
- Warrants-general/hypothetical bridges between claim and data.
- Qualifiers- statements that limit strength of argument.
- Rebutals-counter argument that disprove general argument.
- Backing-statements that support warrants and prove warrants true
- Is the study of reasoning.
- Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, these forms can be valid or fallacies.
Or inductive logic, is a type of reasoning that involves moving from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion.
- This ice is cold. (Or: All ice I have ever touched has been cold.)>>>> general ALL ice is cold
Deductive logic, is reasoning which constructs or evaluates deductive arguments. Deductive arguments are said to be valid or invalid, never true or false.
- Major Premise= All men are mortal
- Minor Premise= Socrates is a man
- Conclusion= (Therefore,) Socrates is mortal
ADVOCATE / AFFIRMATIVE
person who communicates to encourage a change in behavior or beliefs
OPPONENT / NEGATIVE
Person who acts to discourage the change supported by the advocate
Identifies existing laws, rules, policies, practices and customs/ figurative ground representing the ways things are at present (ex. Innocent until proven guilty)
Burden of Proof
2 basic principles:
- Advocate has the responsibility to make the case with good and sufficient reasons for change. THIS IS THE BURDEN OF PROOF
- In fulfilling BoP beliefs and behaviors described by presumptions are judged and evaluated based on avail. Evidence and an alternative pattern of thought is proposed
Presumptions vs Burden of Proof
- PRESUMPTION = no judgment/ purely descriptive
- BURDEN OF PROOF= logical opposite of presumption/ passes judgment & criticizes belief or behavior & recommends new behavior
- statement that identifies argumentative ground and points to change the belief or behavior// defines focus of disagreement// identifies what arg. about
- VALUE (is..are..)/ FACT/ POLICY (should…would…ought…)
Prima Facia/Prime Facie
- “At first sight”
- "On the face”
- MUST be presented in advocates first speech!!
- advocate has responsibility of presenting prima facie case= face value justifies change in belief or behavior
- form and content determine face value of advocates case
- must be topical and inherent (inherent concerned with nature of the cause)
- what was cause? Cause establishes that a PROBLEM exists as a direct result of existing beliefs or behaviors
- prima facie causes the suspension of presumption unless successfully challenged
The inferential leap from grounds to claim made through the warrant.Based on common patterns of experience.
Based on the premise that things occur in an orderly fashion for some reasonA generalization about the relationship between phenomenon along a timeline Cause and Effect
- Connects phenomena with conditions that exists
- along a timeline
- Tells us what is the case, not why it is the case
What is true in some instances is true in all or most instancesCan be restricted or universal
Reasoning on the basis of two or more similar cases.
Illustrate, clarify, or make argument more memorableFigurative, not literal, comparison of dissimilar casesWeakest form of argument
Argument from Authority
A form of reasoning based on the expertise and credibility of the source.Backing the warrant very important in this type of argument
Forced choice between two unacceptable alternativesTesting Dilemmas