Psych: Sensation and Perception

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eyereeen
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203678
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Psych: Sensation and Perception
Updated:
2013-02-26 21:10:21
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sensation perception psychology
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Sensation and perception
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  1. Process of detecting, converting, and transmitting new sensory info from the external and internal environments to the brain
    Sensation
  2. Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information into meaningful patterns
    Perception
  3. Information processing beginning at the bottom with raw sensory data sent up to the brain for higher-level analysis
    Bottom-up processing
  4. Information processing starting at the top with higher-level processes and then working down
    Top-down processing
  5. Eyes, ears, other sense organs contain receptor cells that detect and process sensory info
    Sensory detection
  6. Converts receptor's energy into neural impulses that are sent on to the brain
    Transduction
  7. Converting sensory inputs into different sensations
    Coding
  8. Filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending neural messages on to the cortex
    Sensory Reduction
  9. Studies the link between physical characteristics of stimuli and our sensory experience
    Psychophysics
  10. Smallest amount of a stimulus we can reliably detect
    Absolute Threshold
  11. Minimal difference needed to detect a stimulus change
    Difference Threshold
  12. Decreased sensitivity due to repeated or constant stimulation
    Sensory Adaptation
  13. A form of electromagnetic energy that moves in waves
    Light
  14. Distance between the crests of waves
    Wavelength
  15. How often a light or sound wave cycles
    Frequency
  16. Height of a light or sound wave
    Amplitude
  17. What are the receptors for vision & where are they located?
    Rods and cones; Retina
  18. Pit in the eye filled with cones, responsible for sharpest vision
    Fovea
  19. Detect white, black, gray, dim light, peripheral vision
    Rods
  20. Detects color, sharp vision, detailed vision, and is maximally sensitive to red, green, and blue
  21. Thoery where color perception results from 3 types of cones in the retina, each most sensitive to either red, green, or blue
    Trichromatic Theory
  22. Theory where color perception results from three systems of color opposites (blue-yellow, red-green, & black-white)
    Opponent-Process Theory
  23. Results from movement of air molecules in a particular wave pattern
    Sound
  24. Determines pitch of sound
    Wavelength
  25. Determines loudness of sound
    Amplitude
  26. Pinna, auditory canal, and ear drum
    Outer ear
  27. Hammer, anvil, and stirrup
    Middle ear
  28. Cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
    Inner ear
  29. Where are receptors for smell embedded in?
    Nasal membrane; the olfactory epithelium
  30. What are the receptors for taste & where are they located?
    Taste buds; located in papillae on the surface of the tongue
  31. Sense of balance
    Vestibular sacs
  32. Provides our brains with information about posture, orientation, and movement
    Kinesthesia
  33. Where are kinesthetic receptros located?
    Muscles, joints, and tendons
  34. False or misleading perception that helps scientists study the processes of perception
    Illusion
  35. Filtering out & attending only to important sensory messages
    Selective attention
  36. Specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information
    Feature Detectors
  37. Brain's tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant
    Habituation
  38. Assembling information into patterns that help us understand the world
    Organization
  39. The perception process that involves choosing where to direct attention
    Selection
  40. Perceiving the environment as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input
    Perceptual Constancy
  41. Ability to perceive three dimensional space and accurately judge distance
    Depth Perception
  42. Depth perception demonstrated by infants hesitating to crawl over the glass
    Visual cliff
  43. Separation of the eye causes different images to fall on each retina
    Retinal Disparity
  44. The closer the object the more the eyes converge, or turn inward
    Convergence
  45. Perception process involving how the brain explains sensations
    Interpretation
  46. Readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations
    Perceptual set
  47. Based on the context of the situation
    Frame of Reference
  48. Supposed "psychic" abilities that go beyond the known senses (e.g. telepathy or clairvoyance)
    Extrasensory perception (ESP)

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