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Between 1890 and 1920, psychologists, urban reformers, educators, etc began to mold what?
The age of adolescents
Plato thought children should spend their time doing what?
He also thought adolescents should be doing what?
a) Spending time participating in sports and music
b) Studying science and mathematics
Aristotle argue that the most important aspect of adolescence is what?
The ability to choose and that self-determination is a hallmark of maturity.
Aristotle also said...
That adolescents think they know everything and are quire sure about it.
G Stanley Hall said what about adolescents?
That they appear to be passive on the outside, but are really experiencing considerable stress and turmoil on the inside.
Who influenced G Stanley Hall?
What did Hall propose about adolescents?
That all development was controlled by genetically determined physiological factors.
The Storm and Stress View is...
Hall's concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with Conflict and Mood Swings.
Mead proposed what?
That the basic nature of adolescence is not biological, but sociocultural.
The view that adolescence is a sociocultural creation is called the...?
The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life space is called?
Changes in the individual's thinking and intelligence is called?
Changes in an individual's personality, emotions, relationships with other people and social contexts is called?
The Prenatal period is?
The time from conception to birth.
Infancey is from ___ to ____
18 to 24 months
Early childhood is from ___ to ___
5 to 6 years of age
Middle and Late childhood is from ___ to ___
From about 6 to10 or 11 years
Adolescence is from ___ to ___
12 to about 19
The developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle school or junior high school years and includes the most pubertal change is?
Approximately the latter half of the second decade of life is called...
Early adulthood is...
The developmental period beginning in the late teens or early twenties and lasting through the thirties.
Middle adulthood is...
the period that begins from 35 to 45 years and ends roughly 55 to 65 years of age.
With adolescence comes cognitive maturity such as...
Abstact, idealistic, and logical thinking.
The biological changes are...
Growth spurts, hormonal changes, and sexual maturation.
The quest for independence, conflict with parents, and a desire to spend more time with peers is evidence of what...
Jeffery Arnett concluded that five key features characterized emerging adulthood...
- 1) Identity Exploration (especially in love and work)
- 2) Instability
- 3) Self-focused
- 4) Feeling in-between
- 5) The age of possibilities
Adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances is what?
The debate about whether development is primarily influenced by what?
Nature or Nurture
The extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages is...
The Continuity-Discontinuity model
A child's first words is an example of a
Puberty is an example of a
Early-later experience issue (Define)
The issue focuses on the degree to which early experiences or later experiences are key determinants of development.
Plato believed what with infants?
That if they were rocked more frequently they became better athletes.
What are the steps to the Scientific Method?
- 1) Identify a problem
- 2) Collect data
- 3) Analyze data
- 4) Draw conclusions
An interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions.
Specific assertions and predictions that can be tested.
Psychoanalytic theories ....
Describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotions.
Freud's five psycho-sexual stages are...
- 1) Oral Stage
- 2) Anal Stage
- 3) Phallic stage
- 4) Latency Stage
- 5) Genital Stage
Freud stressed what about adolescents?
They are filled with tension and conflict
Consists of instincts, which are an individual's resevoir of psychic energy.
Deals with the demands of Reality
The ego is also called the what?
"Executive Branch" because it makes Rational Decisions.
The Moral branch of personality
The unconscious methods of distorting reality used by the ego to protect itself from anxiety.
Erikson's Stages are
- 1) Trust vs Mistrust (First Year)
- 2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (Infancy and Toddler)
- 3) Initiative vs Guilt (Preschool)
- 4) Industry vs Inferiority (Elementary)
- 5) Identity vs Confusion (Adolescent)
- 6) Intimacy vs Isolation (Early adulthood)
- 7) Generativity vs Stagnation (Middle adulthood)
- 8) Integrity vs Despair (Late Adulthood)
States that individuals actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
Piaget's Stages are S. P. C. F.
These stand for...
- Concrete Operational
- Formal Operational
Vygotsky's theory was...
That sociocultural cognitive theory emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
Information Processing Theory
Emphasizes that individual's manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.
Individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills.
Information Processing Theory
Socio Cultural Theory
The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment and cognition as the key factors in development.
What did Albert Bandura propose?
That people cognitively represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
Holds that development reflects the influence of five environmental systems
- - Micro
- - Meso
- - Exo
- - Macro
- - Chrono (time)
The setting in which the adolescent lives. Includes family, peers, school, and the neighborhood.
Involves relations between the Microsystems or connections between contexts. School experiences to church experiences, family experiences to peer experiences.
- Links between a social setting in which the adolescent does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context.
- Ex: Husband's or Adolescent's experience at home may be influenced by a mother's experiences at work.
The culture in which adolescents live.
Patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as socio-historical circumstances.
Eclectic Theoretic Orientation
Does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best fit.
Mike Males Myth
Teenage birth rates are out of control due to immaturity, lack of information on sex, lack of values, and "children having children"
Not about education, but about poverty.
Mike Males Myth
Teen violent crimes are increasing
The same with adult violent crimes
Chpt 2 - Puberty
- The main class of male sex hormones
- The main class of female sex hormones.
Structure in the higher portion of the brain that monitors eating, drinking, and sex.
What does GnRH stand for and what does it do.
GnRH = Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Substance secreted by the hypothalamus that is linked to pubertal timing.
Hormonal changes in the adrenal glands, located just above the kidneys
Follows adrenarche by about two years is the period most people think of as puberty.
Proposed body weight that triggers menarche
- 106 lbs +/- 3 lbs
- Roughly 15 to 17% body fat
Girls increase ___ per year in height
Boys increase ___ in height each year
an excessive hairiness in women.
Secular trends show...
That over the years and across generations, the onset of puberty has decreased in age. Shown in Norway where the onset of puberty began at 17 and now begins at 13.
One study indicated that girls who were Early Maturing had what...
Had high levels of adrenal androgens and higher emotional arousal and depressive affect than other girls.
Early maturing boys perceived themselves more ...
Positively and had more successful peer relations than late maturing counterparts.
Hanging out with peers in an unstructured context did what...
Increased the adolescent's risk taking behavior.
Top three leading causes of death in adolescents.
- 1) Unintentional Injury
- 2) Homicide
- 3) Suicide
DNA (Dioxyribonucleic acid)
Complex molecule that contains genetic information
Actual genetic make-up
- The observable and measurable characteristics.
- The physical expression.
Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional, interchange between heredity and the environment.
What are the nervous system's basic units?
A neuron has three basic parts:
The Dendrite is the _____ part of the neuron.
Cell bodies have information carried away from them by the ____.
What is Myelination?
The process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system.
An important aspect of the brain's development is the increase in connections between neurons, a process called _______.
...the gaps between neurons, where connections between the axon and dendrites take place.
When the connections between neurons go unused and die, this is called _______.
The fourth postnatal month is when what takes place?
A peak of synaptic over-production.
Neurotransmitters are _________.
Chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap between one neuron to the next.
An increase in the neurotransmitter Dopamine causes what during adolescence?
Schizophrenia, risk taking, and the use of addictive drugs
A large bundle of axon fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres in the brain is called the ________.
The highest level of the brain's frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control is the _______.
A portion of the brain's limbic system that is the seat of emotions such as anger is the _______.
A mental concept or framework that is useful in organizing and interpreting information is called a _______.
The incorporation of new information into existing knowledge is called ________.
The adjustment of a schema to new information is called _______.
A shift in thought from one state to another is called ______.
What are Piaget's stages of development?
- Concrete Operational
- Formal Operational
In this stage ... infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions.
In this stage ... children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
In this stage ... logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
In this stage ... adolescents are developing the power of thought where they can now conjure up make-believe situations and think of the hypothetical and abstract possibilities and try to logically reason them out.
What is Metacognition?
Metacognition is the act of thinking about thinking.
Hypothetical deductive reasoning is _____?
The ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about how to solve problems.
Piaget later revised his statement on the Formal Operational Stage, saying...
Thought is not completely achieved until later in adolescence, between 15 and 20 years.
Considering what Piaget first through in terms of timing, some cognitive abilities have...
In fact emerged earlier than what he predicted.
Zone of Proximal Development
Refers to the range of tasks that are too difficult for an individual to master alone, but that can be mastered with the guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled persons.
Draw the ZPD
- Upper Limit - Level of additional responsibility child or adol can accept with assistance of able instructor
- Lower Limit - Tasks too difficult for child or adol to master alone.
Social Constructivist Approach
Emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.
This is proposed to have an important influence on memory and problem solving.
What is the chance that the person will have blue eyes?
Adolescent egocentrism is...
the heightened self-consciousness which is reflected in their belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are.
Imaginary audience refers to
the aspect of adol egocentrism that involves attention getting behavior such as the attempt to be noticed, visible, and "onstage."
Higher order, complex cognitive functioning
The ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings.
James Marcia’s 4 types of identity stages
the global evaluative dimension of the self.
Domain-specific evaluations of the self
Enduring, basic aspect of the self that includes a sense of memberships in an ethnic group and the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.
Erikson on Identity
Argued that intimacy should develop after individuals are well on their way to establishing a stable and successful identity.
Feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to the individual, especially to his or her well being.
Big 5 Personality Test Factors
The process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them.
Emphasizes the role that early parent-child relationships play in constructing a basic way of relating to people throughout the life span.
Building the set mold of how to relate to others.
Emphasizes change and growth in relationships over time.
With each new type of relationship, individuals encounter new modes of relating.
Four types of parenting styles
- 1) Authoritarian
- 2) Authoritative
- 3) Neglectful
- 4) Indulgent
Most conflicts between parents and teens involved...
Everyday events of family life, such as chores, dressing neatly, getting home on time.
- 1) Secure
- 2) Insecure
- 3) Dismissing/Avoidant
- 4) Preoccupied/Ambivalent
- 5) Unresolved/Disorganized
Developmental Construction View
Sharing the belief that as individuals grow up, they acquire modes of relating to others.