Microbial Diseases

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Microbial Diseases
2013-02-26 23:36:29
MicrobDiphtheria Pertussis

Diphtheria, Pertussis (exam 1)
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  1. Diphtheria:
    Upper respiratory Bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  2. Diphtheria Symptoms:
    Begins with sore throat and fever, neck swells

    • -often affects throat(pharynx) and larynx (voicebox)
    • -creates a pseudomembrane of fibrin, dead tissue and bacterial cells that clogs throat/air passage
  3. Diphtheria Microbe:
    • Microbe: Corynbacterum diphteriae
    • --> gram positive
    • --> non-endospore-forming rod
    • --> cell arranged: palisades
  4. Diphtheria Vaccines:
    • DTap Vaccine: for children, "D" stands for Diphtheria toxoid (inactivated toxin) that allows body to make antibodies against diphtheria.
    • --> "Toxoid vaccine" based on inactivated exotoxin

    Tdap booster: teens and adults (combined with tetanus shots)
  5. Diphtheria Transmission:
    Droplet transmission; resistant to drying (coughing, sneezing, talking)-also skin contact with humans
  6. Exotoxin:
    • Toxic proteins secreted by bacteria;
    • produces strains that cause disease.
    • Related bacteria are present on skin and are not pathogenic.
  7. Mortality and complications from Diphtheria
    • Suffocation/death-children mostly
    • Heart/peripheral nerve damage
  8. Diphtheria Diagnostic methods & treatments
    Diagnose: throat swab culture; PCR (polymerase chain reaction-method to make many DNA copies) to grown and study

    treatments: Antibiotics & antitoxins (penicillin/erythromycin)
  9. Pertussis:
    Whooping cough; damages cilliated cells in respiratory system

    • -paralyzes the cilliated cells
    • -cause inflammation
    • -impairs immune response
  10. Pertussis Microbe
    • caused by Bacterium "Bordetella pertussis"' obligatory aerobic
    • gram negative
    • coccobacillus
  11. Pertussis Mode of Transportation
    Transportation: respiratory droplets (coughing/sneezing)
  12. The stages of Pertussis:
    First Stage (catarrhal stage) resembles common cold- coughing, sneezing, low fever (100 deg F)

    Second Stage (Paroxysmal stage): severe prolonged coughing fits, may make "whoop" sounds; difficult to cough up phlegm when cilliated cells are destroyed.

    Third stage: coughing eventually become less frequent and less severe (convalescence)
  13. Pertussis Complications:
    • -break ribs
    • -brain damage/death in babies by coughing
    • -pneumonia
  14. Pertussis Diagnosis
    Diagnosis: culturing bacteria (swab and identify)
  15. Pertussis Treatments:
    -Herd immunity
    • 1. First stage: give antibiotics
    • 2. second stage:
    • 3. DTaP: subunit of pertussis (begins at 2 months old, given 3 shots total)
    • 4. Boosters for teens
    • 5. Tdap: adults
    • 5. Vaccine rate: 93% herd immunity (reduced chance of infection of vulnerable individuals if a certain high percentage of individuals in the populations are vaccinated or immune.)