nervous system part 1

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nervous system part 1
2013-02-27 11:12:26

human body
Show Answers:

  1. What is in the CNS
    Brain & Spinal Cord
  2. What is in the PNS
    • 12 pairs of cranial nerves (to n from brain)
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves (to n from spinal cord)
  3. Nervous system maintains homeostasis, what other system maintains homeostasis?
  4. Recepter
    responds to internal/external change called a stimuli
  5. Effector
    • tissue or organ
    • carries out command
  6. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
    • voluntary
    • skeletal muscle
  7. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • Involuntary
    • smooth and cardiac muscle
  8. 2 Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic
    • Parasympathetic
  9. Neurons
    • transmit impulse to another
    • in CNS and PNS
  10. What is the cell body?
    • main part
    • contains nucleus & organelles
  11. What is the dendrite?
    • lots of short branched fibers
    • receive stimuli
    • carry msg twrd cell body
    • "receptors"
  12. What is an Axon?
    • single, long fiber extending from cell body
    • carries impulse away from cell body to another neuron
  13. What is the Myelin Shealth?
    white fatty material, insulates and protects
  14. Myelin Shealth is produced in PNS by
    Schwann Cell
  15. Myelin Shealth is produced in the CNS in what?
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • * lacks outer membrane
    • * damage cannot regenerate
  16. What is Neurilemma
    • outermost membrane on schwann cell
    • * allows damage nerve in PNS to regrow & repair
  17. What are the types of Neurons?
    • Sensory (afferent)- to cns
    • Motor (efferent)- from cns
    • Inter-neurons/Association- from sensory neuron to motor neuron w/i cns
  18. Neuroglia cells
    • protects, nourishes, supports,
    • dont transmit impulse
    • in cns and pns
    • regenerate when damaged
    • but can grow excessively (brain tumor)
  19. What is an Astrocyte?
    • lg, star shaped
    • located between neurons and blood vessels
    • holds them near each other, so neurons receive nutrients and oxygen from blood
    • "blood brain barrier"
  20. What neuroglial cell is involved in the "blood brain barrier"
  21. What neuroglia cells becomes phagocytic when pathogens invade nervous system or when there is degeneration or inflm of brain tissue?
  22. What neuroglia cell holds nerve fibers together and produces myelin for cells in CNS?
  23. What neuroglia cell is destroyed by MS?
  24. What neuroglia cell that produces meylin froc ells in PNS?
    Schwann Cells
  25. What neuroglia cell line spaces in brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and produce cerebrospinal fluid?
    Ependymal Cell
  26. What is white matter?
    • myelinated axons
    • in brain, spinal cord, nerve tracks
  27. What is gray matter?
    • non-myelinated
    • fibers of cell bodies
  28. What nerve fiber bundle is in the PNS?
    • Nerve
    • its made up of cranial/spinal nerves
  29. What nerve fiber bundles are in the CNS?
    • Tract
    • located in brain/spinal cord where it transmit impulse to/from brain
  30. What surrounds an individual fiber?
  31. What surrounds many fibers (fascicles)?
  32. What surrounds a whole nerve or tract (many fascicles)?
  33. What nerve contains only sensory neurons and conducts impulses in ascending tracts?
    Sensory or Afferent Nerve
  34. What nerve contains only motor neuron fibers, and conducts impulses in descending tracts?
    Motor of Efferent Nerve
  35. What nerve contains both sensory & motor neuron, and conducts impulses in both directs?
    • Mixed Nerve
    • All Spinal Nerves
    • Most Cranial Nerve
  36. What is Unstimulated mean?
    • at rest state,
    • neurons carriers electrical charged (potential)
    • maintains particles on boths ides of plasma membrane
  37. What stage is at rest, potassium is inside, sodium is outside?
    • Polarization
    • inside is negative, outside is positive
  38. What is the state where there is a reversal of particle concentration on either side of the membrane?
    Action Potential
  39. What stage is when the membrane is stimulated & sodium rushes inward?
    • Deplarization
    • * inside of membrane becomes positive
  40. What stage is when there is an abrupt return of neuron's membrane to its original state?
    • Repolarization
    • potassium channels open & allow it to leave
  41. Where is a neurotransmitter released from a per-syanptic cell?
    junction called synapse
  42. Where does a neurotransmitter diffuse across?
    a gap called synaptic cleft
  43. Where does a neurotransmitter attach to receptors on?
    post synaptic cell (dendrite)
  44. What opens channels to generate an impulse?
    Synapses & Neurotransmitters
  45. What is released from adrenal gland and is also called adrenaline?
  46. what is released from adrenal gland and also called noradrenaline?
  47. what is released from a neuron?
  48. how is acetylcholine used in the PNS?
    regulate skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  49. how is acetylcholine used in the CNS?
    learning, memory, more
  50. what is neurotransmitter is from the brain & related to Parkinson disease?
  51. what neurotransmitter is in the brain, and related to mood, sleep, depression?
  52. what neurotransmitter is in tissue and constricts bronchail smooth muscle, vasodilation small blood vessels causing drop in bp, and immunity?
  53. what neurotransmitter is morphine-like, or called exercise high
    • endorphins
    • enkephalins
  54. what cell (neurotransmitter) can stimulate or inhibit?
    post snypatic cell