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What is in the CNS
Brain & Spinal Cord
What is in the PNS
- 12 pairs of cranial nerves (to n from brain)
- 31 pairs of spinal nerves (to n from spinal cord)
Nervous system maintains homeostasis, what other system maintains homeostasis?
responds to internal/external change called a stimuli
- tissue or organ
- carries out command
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
- skeletal muscle
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
- smooth and cardiac muscle
2 Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
- transmit impulse to another
- in CNS and PNS
What is the cell body?
- main part
- contains nucleus & organelles
What is the dendrite?
- lots of short branched fibers
- receive stimuli
- carry msg twrd cell body
What is an Axon?
- single, long fiber extending from cell body
- carries impulse away from cell body to another neuron
What is the Myelin Shealth?
white fatty material, insulates and protects
Myelin Shealth is produced in PNS by
Myelin Shealth is produced in the CNS in what?
- * lacks outer membrane
- * damage cannot regenerate
What is Neurilemma
- outermost membrane on schwann cell
- * allows damage nerve in PNS to regrow & repair
What are the types of Neurons?
- Sensory (afferent)- to cns
- Motor (efferent)- from cns
- Inter-neurons/Association- from sensory neuron to motor neuron w/i cns
- protects, nourishes, supports,
- dont transmit impulse
- in cns and pns
- regenerate when damaged
- but can grow excessively (brain tumor)
What is an Astrocyte?
- lg, star shaped
- located between neurons and blood vessels
- holds them near each other, so neurons receive nutrients and oxygen from blood
- "blood brain barrier"
What neuroglial cell is involved in the "blood brain barrier"
What neuroglia cells becomes phagocytic when pathogens invade nervous system or when there is degeneration or inflm of brain tissue?
What neuroglia cell holds nerve fibers together and produces myelin for cells in CNS?
What neuroglia cell is destroyed by MS?
What neuroglia cell that produces meylin froc ells in PNS?
What neuroglia cell line spaces in brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and produce cerebrospinal fluid?
What is white matter?
- myelinated axons
- in brain, spinal cord, nerve tracks
What is gray matter?
- fibers of cell bodies
What nerve fiber bundle is in the PNS?
- its made up of cranial/spinal nerves
What nerve fiber bundles are in the CNS?
- located in brain/spinal cord where it transmit impulse to/from brain
What surrounds an individual fiber?
What surrounds many fibers (fascicles)?
What surrounds a whole nerve or tract (many fascicles)?
What nerve contains only sensory neurons and conducts impulses in ascending tracts?
Sensory or Afferent Nerve
What nerve contains only motor neuron fibers, and conducts impulses in descending tracts?
Motor of Efferent Nerve
What nerve contains both sensory & motor neuron, and conducts impulses in both directs?
- Mixed Nerve
- All Spinal Nerves
- Most Cranial Nerve
What is Unstimulated mean?
- at rest state,
- neurons carriers electrical charged (potential)
- maintains particles on boths ides of plasma membrane
What stage is at rest, potassium is inside, sodium is outside?
- inside is negative, outside is positive
What is the state where there is a reversal of particle concentration on either side of the membrane?
What stage is when the membrane is stimulated & sodium rushes inward?
- * inside of membrane becomes positive
What stage is when there is an abrupt return of neuron's membrane to its original state?
- potassium channels open & allow it to leave
Where is a neurotransmitter released from a per-syanptic cell?
junction called synapse
Where does a neurotransmitter diffuse across?
a gap called synaptic cleft
Where does a neurotransmitter attach to receptors on?
post synaptic cell (dendrite)
What opens channels to generate an impulse?
Synapses & Neurotransmitters
What is released from adrenal gland and is also called adrenaline?
what is released from adrenal gland and also called noradrenaline?
what is released from a neuron?
how is acetylcholine used in the PNS?
regulate skeletal, smooth, cardiac
how is acetylcholine used in the CNS?
learning, memory, more
what is neurotransmitter is from the brain & related to Parkinson disease?
what neurotransmitter is in the brain, and related to mood, sleep, depression?
what neurotransmitter is in tissue and constricts bronchail smooth muscle, vasodilation small blood vessels causing drop in bp, and immunity?
what neurotransmitter is morphine-like, or called exercise high
what cell (neurotransmitter) can stimulate or inhibit?
post snypatic cell