Card Set Information
all of it!
what is pharmacology?
study of origin, properties, effects of drugs, on a living organism
what is the use of absorption?
an entrance into blood stream
speed depends on the route
movement by circulatory system to cells and tissues until peak blood levels
what is the metabolism?
a chemical breakdown after use (in liver)
what is excretion?
elimination (in kidneys)
where do origins come from?
animals, plants, minerals
most produced synthetically in lab
what are the solid forms of drugs?
tablets, capsules, caplets, lozenges, creams, ointments, suppositories, transdermal patches
what are the liquid form of drugs?
elixers (alcohol), emulsions, liniments, lotions, solutions, spirits, sprays, suspensions (shakes), syrups (sugar), tinctures
dissolves in solution of alcohol/water
sweetened or flavored
mixed of fats n oils in water
combined w/ oil, soap, alcohol, water
has 1 solution
vapor type of drug
drug is solid, must shake before use
drug dissolves in alochol/water
drug dissolves in sugar/water
pressed into a small disc
it can be scored
has a case
dissolves on tongue
drug mixed w/a firm base
melts at body temp
put into vagina/rectum
contains a drug
applied to skin
federal agency that determines drugs are safe and effective
FDA (us food & drug administration)
*for drugs w/o supervision
agency has regulation over controlled drugs?
drug enforcement agency
regulate controlled drugs?
count each day
verified by two pople
record in log
submit to DEA
highly potential drugs
no medical use
high abuse potential
prescription in writing
telephone- only allowed for immm. use. confirm w/i 72 hrs
no refills allowed
some potential for abuse
accepted medical use
low to moderate physical dependency
moderate-high psychological dependency
prescription written or verbal
refilled five times w/i 6 months of date prescribed
low potential for abuse,
accepted medical abuse,
has limited both physical or psychological dependency
prescription written or verbal
refilled 5 times w/i 6 months of date prescribed
very low potential abuse
accepted medical use
refills determined by provider,
expires one year,
available without prescription if under 18
what book uses for council on pharmacology for medical assocation?
united states pharmacopeia formulary (USP/NF)
what book is published by medical economics company with cooperation of participating pharmaceutical manufacturers?
Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
what is in a Physician's Deesk Reference?
color coded sections
actual-size pictures (tables, capsules)
conditions that a drug is approved to treat?
what is a harmful affect? like dyspnea, shock, convulsions, loss of consciousness, or even death?
what is an abnormal, or unexplainable reaction?
what route is under the tongue?
what route is between gum and cheek?
what route is on your skin?
what is the name of the route that is outside the GI tract and is by injection?
directions to a pharmacist on prescription
what is the word describing the directions to a pharmacist on the prescription?
phrase needed for controlled substances
what are the rights of drug administration?
right to be educated
right to refuse
3 measurement systems
measurement systems measure what?
length- distance from point to point
decimal system based on multiples of 10
prefixes of metric system
abbreviations of metric system
weight- microgram, milligram, gram, kilogram
volume- milliliter, cubic centimeter, liter
length- millimeter, centimeter
older, less accurate
gradually being phased out
weight- grain, scruple., dram, oz, lb
volume- mini min, fluid dram, fluid oz, pint
length- inch, ft, yard, mile
apothecary system abbreviations
weight- grain, scruple, dram, ounce
volume- minim, fluid dram, fluid ounce, pint, quart, gallon
pt. use at home
only in volume
plastic, disposable, safety devides
inserts fluid into the body
used for IM inj.
calibrated into tenths
1-3 cc/ml capacity
calibrated in Unites (U)
for insulin injections
50 or 100 U
(0.01) CC/ML used for PPD (tuberculin test)
other- 5-60 cc/ml for treatments
BARREL of syringe
FLANGE of syringe
rim at end of barrel
stabilizes syringe during injection
PLUNGER of syringe
moveable inside barrel
draws medicine into syringe
pushes medicine out during inject.
HUB of syringe
connects to the syringe
SHAFT of syringe
part that is inserted into the tissue
LUMEN of syringe
hollow inside of shaft
medicine flows through it
diamter of the lumen
# increases = diameter decreases
POINT/BEVEL of syringe
tip of needle shaft
it is tapered
LENGTH of syringe
depends on type of injet
sit, size, pt.
filtered is used with what?
closed glass container w/ rubber stopper
roll to mix
small sealed glass container- single dose
tap stem & break
RECONSTITUTION of powdered drugs
adding liquid to powdered drug
needle length- 1/2 to 5/8 inch
needle gauge- 23 or 25
upper lateral arm
upper outer thigh
45 degree angle (5/8 inch)
90 degree angle (1/2 inch)
cannot inject more than 1 cc/ml
common sub-q injection medicines
more rapid absorption
for concentrated drugs or irritable/damageable drugs
common IM injection medicines
IM injection sites
dorsogluteal (gluetus maximus muscle in buttock)
ventrogluteal (gluteus medius muscle in hip)
vastus lateralis (muscle in thigh)
IM injection length & gauge
gauge- 18, 21, 23
length- 1-3 inch (1 1/2 is common)
insert 90 degree angle
ALLOWED- a bubble
when skin is pulled sideways to track medicine
inject @ 90 degree angle
leave 1/3 of needle exposed
most common site- dorsogluteal
three finger widths below acromion process
1 inch needle
.5-1.0 cc/ml common
find greater trochanter and posterior superior iliac spine
make diagonal line between them
for adults/children over 3 years old
last resort- avoid sciatic nerve & arteries
left sided injection
find greater trochanter, point index finger towards the iliac spine, point pointer finger as far as possible away, inject between the two fingers
landmark intramuscular injection
find greater trochanter, go at least one hand-width below this, and one hand-width above the knee cap
use for children under 3
landmark ID (intradermal) injections
anterior forearm, where skin is thin
use for skin testing or TB
needle length- 3/8th or 5/8ths
gauge- 25 or 27
tuberculin testing methods
Mantoux or TB tine
mantoux test of TB
3/8 or 1/2 inch,
DONT cover site when finished
read tests w/i 48-72 hours
reading of a TB mantoux test
read w/i 48-72 hours
read diameter horizontally across
use mm rule
positive- 10 mm or more
doubtful- 5-9 mm
negative- 5 mm or less
what is PPD of TB?
purified protein derivative of tuberculin
allergic rhinitis, hay fever, asthma, urticaria, contact dermatitis, eczema
direct skin testing for allergies
extracts of common allergens applied topically to skin (patch test)
injected into superficial skin layers (skin prick)
read results 20-30 minutes after
sites for direct skin testing of allergies
anterior forearm (ID testing)
upper arm (ID testing)
middle of back (Path and skin prick testing)
RAST allergy test
draw blood, sent to outside lab
measures amount of antibodies in blood to common allergens