administering medications

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chelsearose91
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203830
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administering medications
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2013-04-02 16:56:40
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  1. what is pharmacology?
    study of origin, properties, effects of drugs, on a living organism
  2. what is the use of absorption?
    • an entrance into blood stream
    • speed depends on the route
  3. distribution
    movement by circulatory system to cells and tissues until peak blood levels
  4. what is the metabolism?
    a chemical breakdown after use (in liver)
  5. what is excretion?
    elimination (in kidneys)
  6. where do origins come from?
    animals, plants, minerals

    most produced synthetically in lab
  7. what are the solid forms of drugs?
    tablets, capsules, caplets, lozenges, creams, ointments, suppositories, transdermal patches
  8. what are the liquid form of drugs?
    elixers (alcohol), emulsions, liniments, lotions, solutions, spirits, sprays, suspensions (shakes), syrups (sugar), tinctures
  9. ELIXER
    • dissolves in solution of alcohol/water
    • sweetened or flavored
  10. EMULSIONS
    mixed of fats n oils in water
  11. LINIMENT
    • combined w/ oil, soap, alcohol, water
    • applied externally
  12. LOTION
    • external, soothe,
    • protect, moisten
  13. SOLUTION
    • has 1 solution
    • dissolvable
  14. SPRAY
    vapor type of drug
  15. SUSPENSION
    drug is solid, must shake before use
  16. TINCTURE
    drug dissolves in alochol/water
  17. SYRUP
    • drug dissolves in sugar/water
    • flavored
  18. TABLET
    • powdered drug
    • pressed into a small disc
    • it can be scored
  19. CAPSULE
    • gelatin capsule
    • water soluable
  20. LOZENGES
    • candy like
    • has a case
    • circular size
    • dissolves on tongue
  21. CREAM
    • non greasy
    • semi-solid
    • external
  22. OINTMENET
    • oily,
    • semi-solid
    • greasy
  23. SUPPOSITORY
    • drug mixed w/a firm base
    • melts at body temp
    • put into vagina/rectum
  24. PATCHES
    • adhesive
    • contains a drug
    • applied to skin
  25. federal agency that determines drugs are safe and effective
    • FDA (us food & drug administration)
    • *for drugs w/o supervision
  26. agency has regulation over controlled drugs?
    drug enforcement agency
  27. regulate controlled drugs?
    • double lock
    • count each day
    • verified by two pople
    • record in log
    • submit to DEA
  28. schedule 1
    • highly potential drugs
    • no medical use
    • prohibited prescriptions
  29. schedule 2
    • high abuse potential
    • highly restricted
    • prescription in writing
    • telephone- only allowed for immm. use. confirm w/i 72 hrs
    • no refills allowed
  30. schedule 3
    • some potential for abuse
    • accepted medical use
    • low to moderate physical dependency
    • moderate-high psychological dependency
    • prescription written or verbal
    • refilled five times w/i 6 months of date prescribed
  31. schedule 4
    • low potential for abuse,
    • accepted medical abuse,
    • has limited both physical or psychological dependency
    • prescription written or verbal
    • refilled 5 times w/i 6 months of date prescribed
  32. schedule 5
    • very low potential abuse
    • accepted medical use
    • low/physical/psychological dependency
    • refills determined by provider,
    • expires one year,
    • available without prescription if under 18
  33. what book uses for council on pharmacology for medical assocation?
    united states pharmacopeia formulary  (USP/NF)
  34. what book is published by medical economics company with cooperation of participating pharmaceutical manufacturers?
    Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
  35. what is in a Physician's Deesk Reference?
    • color coded sections
    • actual-size pictures (tables, capsules)
  36. conditions that a drug is approved to treat?
    indications
  37. what is a harmful affect? like dyspnea, shock, convulsions, loss of consciousness, or even death?
    anaphylactic reaction
  38. what is an abnormal, or unexplainable reaction?
    idiosyncratic reaction
  39. what route is under the tongue?
    sublingual
  40. what route is between gum and cheek?
    buccal
  41. what route is on your skin?
    topical
  42. what is the name of the route that is outside the GI tract and is by injection?
    parenteral
  43. superscription
    directions to a pharmacist on prescription
  44. what is the word describing the directions to a pharmacist on the prescription?
    subscription
  45. signatura
    the signature
  46. DEA NUMBER
    phrase needed for controlled substances
  47. what are the rights of drug administration?
    • right patient
    • right drug
    • right time
    • right dose
    • right technique
    • right route
    • right to be educated
    • right to refuse
    • right documentation
  48. 3 measurement systems
    • metric
    • apothecary
    • household
  49. measurement systems measure what?
    • weight-mass/heaviness
    • volume-space occupied
    • length- distance from point to point
  50. metric system
    decimal system based on multiples of 10

    • basic units:
    • weight-gram
    • volume-liter
    • length- meter
  51. prefixes of metric system
    • micro
    • milli
    • centi
    • kilo
  52. abbreviations of metric system
    • weight- microgram, milligram, gram, kilogram
    • volume- milliliter, cubic centimeter, liter
    • length- millimeter, centimeter
  53. apothecary system
    • older, less accurate
    • gradually being phased out

    • basic units
    • weight- grain, scruple., dram, oz, lb
    • volume- mini min, fluid dram, fluid oz, pint
    • length- inch, ft, yard, mile
  54. apothecary system abbreviations
    weight- grain, scruple, dram, ounce

    volume- minim, fluid dram, fluid ounce, pint, quart, gallon
  55. household system
    • least accurate
    • pt. use at home
    • only in volume
  56. SYRINGE
    • plastic, disposable, safety devides
    • inserts fluid into the body
  57. HYPOERMIC SYRINGE
    • cc/ml
    • used for IM inj.
    • calibrated into tenths
    • 1-3 cc/ml capacity
  58. INSULIN SYRINGE
    • calibrated in Unites (U)
    • for insulin injections
    • 50 or 100 U
  59. TUBERCULIN SYRINGE
    • into tenths/hundreths
    • (0.01) CC/ML used for PPD (tuberculin test)

    other- 5-60 cc/ml for treatments
  60. BARREL of syringe
    holds medicine
  61. FLANGE of syringe
    • rim at end of barrel
    • stabilizes syringe during injection
  62. PLUNGER of syringe
    • moveable inside barrel
    • draws medicine into syringe
    • pushes medicine out during inject.
  63. HUB of syringe
    connects to the syringe
  64. SHAFT of syringe
    part that is inserted into the tissue
  65. LUMEN of syringe
    • hollow inside of shaft
    • medicine flows through it
  66. GAUGE
    • diamter of the lumen
    • # increases = diameter decreases
  67. POINT/BEVEL of syringe
    • tip of needle shaft
    • it is tapered
  68. LENGTH of syringe
    • depends on type of injet
    • sit, size, pt.
  69. filtered is used with what?
    ampule
  70. VIAL
    closed glass container w/ rubber stopper

    roll to mix
  71. AMPULE
    • small sealed glass container- single dose
    • tap stem & break
  72. RECONSTITUTION of powdered drugs
    adding liquid to powdered drug

    • prolongs shelf-life
    • follow instructions
  73. sub-q injection
    • needle length- 1/2 to 5/8 inch
    • needle gauge- 23 or 25

    • upper lateral arm
    • upper outer thigh
    • upper back
    • abdomen
    • flank area
  74. sub-q injection
    • 45 degree angle (5/8 inch)
    • 90 degree angle (1/2 inch)
    • cannot inject more than 1 cc/ml
  75. common sub-q injection medicines
    • epinephrine
    • insulin
    • allergy injections
    • depo
    • MMR
  76. IM injection
    • more rapid absorption
    • less painful
    • for concentrated drugs or irritable/damageable drugs
  77. common IM injection medicines
    • immunizations
    • antibiotics
    • contraceptives
    • vitamin b12
    • corticosteroids
  78. IM injection sites
    • delotid
    • dorsogluteal (gluetus maximus muscle in buttock)
    • ventrogluteal (gluteus medius muscle in hip)
    • vastus lateralis (muscle in thigh)
  79. IM injection length & gauge
    • gauge- 18, 21, 23
    • length- 1-3 inch (1 1/2 is common)
    • insert 90 degree angle
    • inject slowly
    • aspirate!!!!
    • ALLOWED- a bubble
  80. Z-track
    • when skin is pulled sideways to track medicine
    • inject @ 90 degree angle
    • leave 1/3 of needle exposed

    most common site- dorsogluteal
  81. landmark deltoid
    • three finger widths below acromion process
    • 1 inch needle
    • .5-1.0 cc/ml common
  82. landmark dorsogluteal
    • find greater trochanter and posterior superior iliac spine
    • make diagonal line between them

    for adults/children over 3 years old

    last resort- avoid sciatic nerve & arteries
  83. landmark ventrogluteal
    left sided injection

    find greater trochanter, point index finger towards the iliac spine, point pointer finger as far as possible away, inject between the two fingers
  84. landmark intramuscular injection
    find greater trochanter, go at least one hand-width below this, and one hand-width above the knee cap

    use for children under 3
  85. landmark ID (intradermal) injections
    anterior forearm, where skin is thin

    use for skin testing or TB

    needle length- 3/8th or 5/8ths

    gauge- 25 or 27
  86. tuberculin testing methods
    Mantoux or TB tine
  87. mantoux test of TB
    • ID
    • 3/8 or 1/2 inch,
    • gauge 26-27
    • 0.10 cc/ml
    • anterior forearm

    • DONT cover site when finished
    • read tests w/i 48-72 hours
  88. reading of a TB mantoux test
    • read w/i 48-72 hours
    • read diameter horizontally across
    • use mm rule
    • positive- 10 mm or more
    • doubtful- 5-9 mm
    • negative- 5 mm or less
  89. what is PPD of TB?
    purified protein derivative of tuberculin
  90. allergy includes
    allergic rhinitis, hay fever, asthma, urticaria, contact dermatitis, eczema
  91. direct skin testing for allergies
    • extracts of common allergens applied topically to skin (patch test)
    • injected into superficial skin layers (skin prick)
    • ID injection

    read results 20-30 minutes after
  92. sites for direct skin testing of allergies
    • anterior forearm (ID testing)
    • upper arm (ID testing)
    • middle of back (Path and skin prick testing)
  93. RAST allergy test
    radioallergosorbent assay

    draw blood, sent to outside lab

    measures amount of antibodies in blood to common allergens
  94. math form
    • Doctor       x        Form
    • 1                        Dosage

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