Special Senses

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Author:
skhan11
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203864
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Special Senses
Updated:
2013-03-03 22:03:00
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Physiology
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Special Senses
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  1. Avascular Tunic Layer Consists of?
    • Sclera
    • Cornea
    •      a) Canal of schlemm
  2. Vascular Tunic Layer Consists of?
    • Choroid Layer
    • Ciliary Process with ciliary muscle
    • Iris - Pupil
  3. Neural Tunic Layer Consists of?
    • RETINA
    •      -Rodes & COnes
    •      -Pigmented epithelium
    •      -Other Cells - bipolar neurons & ganglion       cells
  4. What does Anterior Cavity consist of?
    Aqueous Humor
  5. What does posterior Cavity Consists of?
    Vitreous Humor
  6. Photons move as waves of _____ and in _________ waves.
    • Energy
    • Longitunal
  7. We can only see ___ - ___ nm wavelength of radiant energy.
    400 - 750
  8. What are the two functions that eyes carry out?
    • Vision
    • Circadiam CLock
  9. List Wavelength Longest to Shortest.
    • Radio Waves
    • Radar
    • Microwaves
    • Near Infrared
    • Visual Spectrum
    • Ultraviolet
    • X-ray
    • Gamma Ray
  10. Where does the most refraction occur in eye?
    Cornea
  11. Accomodation
    Varriance of curve of the lens
  12. Steps of accomodation:
    Near Vision
    • Increase in parasympathetic stimulation
    • Contraction of ciliary muscles
    • Relaxation of suspensory ligmaents
    • Relaxation of lens
    • Lens becomes rounder
    • Near Vision
  13. What do the eyes tranduce?
    Convert electromagnetic spectrum into nerve impulses.
  14. What refracts light and has an elastic capsule?
    Lens
  15. Where should the refracted light land in order to see clearly?
    On the retina!
  16. Consensual light reaction of iris casues....
    • Pupilary Reflex: flash light pupil gets small
    • &
    • Convergent Reflex: bring fingertip close to eye
  17. Closest distance at which you can focus on an image is called?
    Near Point Accomodation
  18. When light reach the retina....
    the image is upside down.
  19. Retinas Sesning of Photons Pathway
    • Rod/Cone
    • Bipolar Neuron
    • Ganglion Cells
    • Horizontal cells inhibit ganglion cells
    • Amacrine cells
  20. Structure of receptors include....
    • Synaptic Segment
    • Inner Segment
    • Outer Segment
  21. What does opsin determine?
    What wavelength of light gets through
  22. Rods:
    None  found in...
    Contain....
    At rest....
    None found in macula lutea with fovea centrails

    Contains purple photo pigment called rhodopsin.

    • At rest they continuously make c-GMP which: 
    •     -c-GMP stimulates cation chans to               open + charge enters.
    •    -Only the receptor to be depolarized at rest
    •    -Depolarization causes exocytosis of neurot
  23. Rod Tranduction (of light energy to chemical signal) Pathway
    • *Light Must filter past Opsin
    • *Activates retinal.chromophere indisc memb
    • *Retinal Changes Shape
    • *Opsin binds to G-protein (transducin)
    • *Tranducin activates Phosphdesterase
    • *Enzyme Hydrolyzes c-GMP
    • *Decrease c-GMP levels in photoreceptor
    • *Close plasma mem. ion channels (ones controled by c_GMP)
    • *Na+ influx increases but K+ efflux continues
    • *Cell hyperpolarizes
  24. Rods can _____ to continuous stimulation and secrete _____ Instead of having an _____
    • Adapt
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Action Potential
  25. ______ are less sensitive to light than ______ which means needs more light to be activated.
    • Cones (Need more light to activate - Color)
    • Rods (Need less light - No color)
  26. What are the 3 different types of photopigments that make 3 different types of cones?
  27. WHere do photoreceptor synapse?
    on bipolar neurons
  28. Ganglion Cells
  29. Neural Pathway of Vision
    • Rod/Cone
    • Bipolar Neuron
    • Ganglion Cells
    • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    • Fourth Order Neuron out optic radiation
    • VIsual Cortex
    • Visual Association of occipital lobe
    • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
  30. Extrinsic Muscles Responsible for two types of movements:
    • Smooth pursuit movement: Eyes dont jerk.
    • Saccadic Eye Movement: Eyes Jerk!
  31. P-Type Ganglion Cell
    M-Type Ganglion Cell
  32. What is the correct term for near sightedness?
    • Myopia -
    • Unable to see far objects because eyeball is too long.
    • Fixed with concave lens
  33. Oculus Dexter (OD)
    Means Right Eye
  34. Oculus Sinister (OS)
    Means Left Eye
  35. Hyperopia
    • Far sightedness
    • Unable To see Near Objects clearly
    • Eyeball too short
    • Looking at things far away is not restful
    • Corrected with convex lens
  36. Presbyopia
    Farsightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age.
  37. Cataracts
    a clouding of the lens of the eye causing difficulty in seeing.
  38. Astigmatism
    Curvature of the cornea and lens is not perfectly symmetrical
  39. Glaucoma
    An increase in intraocular pressure causes destruction of the retina from the outside in (tunnel vision first)
  40. Dilopia
    Double Vision
  41. Papilledema
    Forces optic nerve to push against eyes
  42. Color Blindness
  43. Night Blindness
  44. Chemo-receptors are....
    Have?
    Food must....
    Ea. Taste receptor reacts...
    Special Epithelial Cells

    • * Have hairlike structures.
    • * Basal Cell divides and replaces the taste epithelial cells damaged.
    • * Food must be dissolved to enter taste pores
    • *Ea. Taste receptor reacts w/varying degrees to different chemicals
  45. Where is taste triggered in the brain?
    Parietal Lobe
  46. Pathway for sweet
    Sugar -G-protein - Blocks K+ Chan. -Depolariza
  47. Pathway for Sour
    • H+ enters cells
    • Block leaky K+ chans
    • Depolarization
  48. Pathway for Salty Taste
    • Na+ Enters channels in membrane
    • Depolarization Occurs
  49. Pathway for Bitter Taste
    Alkaloids --> Stimulate G-Proteins
  50. Pathway for Umami flavor
    • Senses Glutamate
    • Affects a G-Protein
  51. Taste projects to the ______ _____ near the mouth region of the _______ ____.
    • Parietal Cortex
    • Somatosensory Cortex
  52. How long do olfactory epithelial cell live?

    Each epithelial cell (afferent neuron) contains receptors for one specific _____
    Epithelial Cells live for ~ 2months and have single enlarged dendrite

    Odarant
  53. __% of flavor of food comes from smell.
    80
  54. We recognize _______ different odors using ~ ______ different protein receptors.
    • 10,000
    • 1000
  55. Sweat Phermones:
    Women usually like/respond to Andro_____ but not _______
    • Androstenol
    • Androstenone
  56. (sweat) Men usualy like/respond to ________
    Copulines Sweat + Female Hormone
  57. Vomeronasal Organ
  58. Information sent to Limbic System and Olfactory Cortex

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