Biology 2nd semester
Card Set Information
Biology 2nd semester
Study for 2nd semester exams
What is a
an arrangement of genes on a chromosome
What is a
A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Refers to chromosomes that have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex parent.
cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
cell that only contains a single set of chromosomes (genes)
protein that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth.
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the neuclear envelope
fanlike microtubule structure that helps seperate the chromosomes during mitosis
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome.
area where the chromosomes of a chromosome are attached
process where a cell divides into two daughter cells
part of eukaryotic cell division where the cell neucleus divides
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
the scientific study of heredity
What is hybrid?
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits.
AA - the big A is dominant
Aa - the big A is dominant over little a
what is recessive?
aa - little a is the recessive.
what is heterozygous?
an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
what is homozygous?
an oragnism that has two of the same allele for a trait
what is co-dominance?
both alleles in a genotype occur in the phenotype
what is incomplete dominance?
one allele is not completely dominant over the other
what are polygenic tratis?
trait controlled by two or more genes
what is a allele?
one of a number of different forms for a gene
what is a genotype?
genetic makeup of a organism
what is a phenotype?
physical characteristics of a organism
what is a autosome?
chromosome that isn't a sex chromosome
what is a sex chromosome?
one of two chromosomes that determines a individuals gender
what is a pedigree?
chart that shows relationships through a family
what is selective breeding?
only the individuals with the desired traits to produce for the next generation
what is hybridization?
crossing dissimilar organisms to bring together the best traits of both organisms
what is inbreeding?
breeding of individuals with similar desired traits to maintain those traits
what is a mutagen?
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
what is recombinant DNA?
dna produced by combining dna from different sources
what is a restriction enzyme?
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
what is a gene pool?
combined genetic information of all members of a particular species
what is genetic drift?
random changes of allele frequencies that occur in small populations
what is fitness?
the ability to survive in your environment (survival of the fittest)
what is adaptation?
inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival
what is natural selection?
"survival of the fittest"
individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully
what is relative frequency?
# of times an allele occurs in the gene pool compared with the # of times the other alleles occur
what is evolution?
change in a kind of organisms over time
ALSO: the process where modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
what is variation?
what is genetic equilibrium?
situation where allele frequencies remain constant.
what is convergent evolution?
unrelated organisms evolve similarities while living in similar enviroments
what is gradualism?
what is punctuated equilibrium?
long stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid changes
what is co-evolution?
adapting and evolving in response to another organism.
what is embryology?
what is adaptive radiation?
single species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways
label the different parts of a chromosome: