Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
2013-02-27 21:13:38
BIO 220 Test Two

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  1. Upper
    • everything i the neck and head
    • structures: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea
  2. Two functioins of the nose
    • 1.      Filter incoming air
    • Warm air
  3. Structure of the nose`
    • a.      Tunica mucosa of the nose is pseudostratified ciliated columnar because the respiratory system opens to the outside and thus has mucous membranes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cilia and mucus help trap particles
  4. At entrance of nasal cavity
    • a.      At the entrance of the nasal cavity are course hairs called virissae, which help to trap airborne particles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Function: filter
    • b.      Lot of blood vessels in the lining of the nose that help warm the air
  5. Pharynx
    • a.      Small, muscular tube used by both the digestive and respiratory system
    • b.      Communicates with the oral, larynx, and the nasal cavity
  6. Divisions of the pharynx
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Due to this, it has three functional divisions with different linings
    • 1.      Nasopharynx: back of nose    
    • a.      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
    • 2.      Oropharynx: mouth
    • a.      Moist stratified squamous
    • 3.      Laryngopharynx: upper part of the larynx
    • a.      Moist stratified squamous 
  7. Function of pharynx
    transport of food and air
  8. Larynx (voice box) composition
    • a.      Made up of nine cartilages, 3 are paired (6), and 3 singled
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Singled ones form the structure of the larynx
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      The doubled are tiny and work in sound production
    • b.      Stratified squamous moist
  9. Epiglottis
    • a.      Epiglottis is a single cartilage
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Leaf-shaped cartilage
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      When you eat food, the epiglottis closes over the opening of the larynx and diverts food posteriorly into the esophagus
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Serves as a cover to the entrance of the larynx (glottis)
    • 1.      Closes over when you’re eating
  10. Larynx function
    voice production
  11. Trachea (windpipe)
    • a.      Function: transport of air only
    • b.      To prevent collapse, you have cartilage rings all along the length of the trachea
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In humans, those rings are not complete rings, but are C-shaped cartilage connected by muscle in the back
  12. Function of C-shaped cartilage
    • 1.      Function: keep trachea open to prevent collapse
    • 2.      Anteriorly is the ring; behind is an empty space
    • b.      Mucosa is pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  13. Parts of the lower respiratory tract
    • respiratory tree;
    • everything in the thorax
  14. Respiratory tree
    a.      Begin branching into branches of a treeà secondary bronchi until you eventually get terminal bronchioles, which are the smallest and lead into alveolar sacs, which are composed of alveoli
  15. Alveoli
    •                                                               i.      Alveoli are in lungs
    • 1.      Lungs are air-filled sacs
    • 2.      Alveoli are where gas exchange takes place between the circulatory system and your lungs
    • 3.      Highly vascularized because gas exchange occurs here
  16. Wall of alveolus
    1.      Because diffusion is taking place there, the wall of the alveolus is simple squamous epithelium 
  17. Other cells of the alveoli
    • septal cells
    • alveolar macrophages
  18. Septal cells
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Produce surfactant
    • 1.      A phosopholipid that reduces surface tension in the alveoli and prevents their collapse
    • 2.      Must be kept open because gas exchange takes place there
  19. Alveolar macrophages
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Dust busters
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Anything that got passed the pseudostratified and vibrissae will be phagocytosed  by these particles
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Phagocytic cells to get rid of material that ended up in alveoli 
  20. Lungs
    • a.      Covered by a pleural membrane because the lungs have a serous membrane
    • b.      Like all serous membranes, there is the parietal and the visceral layer
  21. Explain the two layers of the lungs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Parietal: attaches to wall of thorax
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Space between is a potential space because, if you want to keep the lungs inflated, you want the pleura to remain together
    • 1.      Potential because it’s a very tiny space, but, generally, the two membranes are together
    • 2.      Reason why there is a potential space is to keep the lungs inflated
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Visceral: outside of the lungs
  22. a.      Human lungs are ___
    • lobulated
    • Left: 2
    • Right: 3