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waste anesthetic gas chemical hazards first aid radiation
Clinical safety test # 2, waste anesthetic gas - radiation
How does exposure to waste gas occur ?
Vapours may be breathed
while working around anesthetic machines that are in use,
Emptying or filling anesthetic vaporizers
may cause exposure to high levels of waste, especialy if spilled
Anesthetic machines and their components
, such as rubber reservoir bags and hoses
What is "
Refers to the vapours of halothane, methoxyflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane that are present in room air.
How much waste gas is present in a vet hospital ?
Vary in different locations at different times.
Highest levels of cantamination are due to spills
What are the type of Vaporizers?
Standard filler port
Key safety filler system
What is the silent danger ?
People believe that if they cannot smell anesthetic gas the room air is "safe"
the human nose can only smell halothane when the concentration is at least
30 ppm which is 15 times
higher thant he
What are some factors that determine the actual level of anesthetic gas?
Duration of anesthetic:
the longer the machine is in use, the higher the waste gas concentration in the room air.
Flow rate of carrier gas:
Higher flow rate may lead to more waste gas
: The scavenger works to expel gas safely outside.
: Mask inductions and eanesthetic hambers release high levels of waste gas, as air can leak around the mask or be released when the chamber is opened.
Ventilation of surgery room
: Rooms with a ceiling fan, wall fan, or other ventilating devices have lower levels of waste gas.
How can levels of waste gas be detected?
What are the Short term effects of waste anesthetic gas?
What are the Long term effects of waste anesthetic gas?
Liver or kidney damage
Chronic nervous system disorders
Explain the Reproductive disorders
there is a 33% increased risk of spontaneous abortion when exposed to waste anesthetic gas.
it also has been linked to an increase in congenital abnormalities.
Explain Liver or Kidney damage
: recognized to be hepatotoxic; fatal "halothane hepatitis" is occasionally reported in humans anesthetized with this
: waste exposure is suspected tobe associated with a higher risk of renal disease.
THESE ARE NO LONGER PRODUCED
Explain chronic nervous system disorders
Nitrous Oxide: chronic exposure to gas has been associated with increased risk of neurologic disease, including muscle weakness, tingling sensations, and numbness
What is the safe level of exposure to waste gas?
Has not been determined.
Recommended that the concentraion of halothane, methoxyflurance or isoflurane not < 2ppm in room air.
How can you check that waste anesthe gas levels are lower than 2ppm ?
How can exposure to waste gas be minimized?
Install an effective scavenging system
Technicians should test the anesthetic machine for gas leaks regularly
Utilize anesthetic techniques that reduce waste gas release
Properly use and maintain anesthetic equipment
Use protective equipment when exposure is unavoidable
What are techniques that reduce waste gas release?
Avoid chambers and masks
Cuffed ET tube
Minimum air flow
What are some Protective spill clean-up equipment ?
Lab coats , Rubber apron more preferable
Rubber gloves or latex surgical gloves
Wear a respirator
What is the Spill clean-up procedure?
1. Everyone should leave the area, unless they are involved in the cleanup
2. Increase ventilation as much as possible by opening outside doors and windows and using fans
3. Pour absorbment material such as kitty litter on the spill, and use a broom to sweep up the litter, dispose in airtight container outside the clinic
4. If the spill is large or if protective quipment is not available, all personnel should leave the building and the local fire department should be notified
What precautions should be used when handling compressed gases ?
1. Store cylinders in a dry, cool well-venitlated area, away from other chemicals.
Keep away from heat
keep away from flammable material
2. Cylinders should be moved with care
should be moved on trolley cart and tied down
3. Secure cylinders well
store on a flat surface , secured to wall
should have the valve cap on when not in use
4. Cylinders should be labeled
know if the tank is full, in use or empty
use oldest first
How do chemicals enter the body ?
Absorption (eye + skin)
How can inhalation of chemicals cause immediate or long term harm?
Direct irritation of the eye and respiratory tract
Absorption from the lungs, enter the bloodstream, and affect internal organs
A few gases can cause asphyxiation
How can you protect yourself from inhaltion gases, vapours and dusts?
Wear protective clothing, especially a respirator
: surgical masks, disposable respirator, cartridge respirators
How do you prevent ingestion of chemicals ?
food and drinks should not be stored close to chemicals
food or other items that are suspected to have been contaminated by a chemical should be discarded
wash hands immediately after handling chemicals, and before eating
What can absorption of chemicals cause?
allergic dermatitis through skin contact
Eyes and nose are particular sensitive to chemicals
when enter the blood stream can affect almost any organ
How can you prevent absorption of chemicals?
Personal protective equipment:
Closed toe shows
Rubber boots, rubber or plastic apron
effects of chemicals ?
Quick onset of effects
Single large dose or exposure
effects of chemicals ?
Repeated small doses over a long period of time
Symptoms may not show for years
How should chemicals be stored?
1. Separate storage areas for each group of hazardous chemicals
2.Areas should be tidy, with good access to all materials without climbing over boxed or reaching
3. Purchase the smallest quantity needed, as there will be less material to spill or catch fire
4.Some type of absorbing agent, such as kitty litter, should be readily availbable for spill clean-up
Corrosives should not be stored above shoulder height or in aisles or hall ways
6. Flammable materials and compressed gases should not be stored near exposure to heat, sunlight or a source of combustion
7. All containers should have a purchase and expiry date written on the lavel, and stock should be reviewed at least annually.
8. Caps should be immediately replaced on chemical bottles after use
How to properly dilute and mix chemicals..
Chemicals shouldnt be mixed together unless the label or MSDS states that the chemicals are compatible.
When diluting with water always start with the water first, and add chemical gradually
How do you properply package waste materials?
Solvents, oils, grease, paints, and other flammables should be placed in
covered metal containers
Broken glass must be placed in a
puncture - proof container
or a sharpes container
What are some hazardous chemicals common in Vet. Hospitals?
Dark room (x-ray) chemicals
Formaldehyde + Formalin
Any chemical that is used to control pests
What are the 5 classes of pesticides?
What type of pesticide is most common in vet. hospitals?
Insecticides. In the form of flea and tick sprays, collars, repellents, shampoos, dips, foams.
What may Insecticides contain ?
Insect growth regulators
What are the Signs and Symptoms of pesticide exposure ?
Signs can be subtle and non-specific (nausea, dizziness, headache)
Depends on exposure amount. Low= mild signs, high= more serious
Any symptoms suggestive of pesticide toxicity should seek medical attention
What are some safety precautions with pesticide use?
know the chemical being used and dthe class of insecticide to which it belongs
follow the label directions
pregnant women should avoid pesticide exposure
What routes are pesticides absorbed ?
How do you avoid absorption of pesticides through the skin?
Rubber gloves and a lab coat whn apply foams or liquid
Aprons when applying insecticidal shampoos or dips
Wash hands after applying the pesticide if didnt wear gloves
Goggles when pouring or mixing concentrated solutions
Eye washes should be available
How do you avoid inhaltion of pesticides?
Use all pesticides only in areas with good ventilation
If ventilation is poor, doors and windows should be opened, use portable fans
Wear a face shield when working around pesticide mists
How do you avoid ingestion of pesticides?
Do not leave open containers of food, beverages, cigarettes, where insecticides are being used
Do not eat, drink or smoke when using insecticides
When should protective equipment be worn when dealing with xrays.?
Replenishing x-ray fluid
Cleaning or maintenance of automatic processors
What are signs and symptoms of darkroom chemical exposure ?
Severe eye irritation, including permanent corneal damage if liquid is splashed into eye
Respiratory tract irritaion and burning if concentrated vapours are inhaled
Skin irritaion if there is direct contact with skin
What are some safety precautions of darkroom chemical use ?
WHIMIS labels should be posted near the developing tanks
When hand-developing films, wear gloves
The clinic should be quipped with and eyewash fountain
Tanks should be covered when not in use and the xray room should have good ventilation
Use of automatic processors greatly reduce the exposure to developing chemicals
What are some signs and symptoms of disinfectant exposure ?
Skin irritation, red, peeling, dry, cracked appearance
Most dermatitis quickly resolves without treatment
What are the effects of Isopropyl alcohol ?
Irritation to the eyes and nose, may cause dry skin
Ingestion may be fatal
What are the effects of Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) ?
Irritaion to the hands, eyes respiratory tract
be mixed with any disinfectant containing ammonia
What are the effects of Idoine - containing solutions ?
irritaion to the skin, eyes and nose
May cause headaches and breathing difficulty if inhaled
Effects of Quatemary Ammonium Compounds ?
Relatively non-toxic at low concentrations, nasal irritation
concentrations greater than 10% may produce chemical burns when spilled on skin
Oral ingestion is poisonous
What are safety precautions of disinfectant use ?
less exsposure you have ,lower risk of becoming sensitized
What are signs and symptoms of formalin and formaldehyde exposures ?
Acute exposure to full strenght formaldehy causes intense irritaion to the yes and skin, causing burning and tearing. Ingestion, causes severe abdominal pain, vomiting. May be fatal
Chronic exposure to formalin or sm amount of formaldehyde may cause red, sore, cracked and blistered skin, soft brown fingernails
What drugs may be harmful when ingested or absorbed through the skin ?
: can cause bradycardia
: may cause miscarriage
Duragesic patch (fentanyl)
: may cause serious respiratory depression
: may cause serious hearty arrhythmia
: most hazardous.used in cancer chemo.
What are safety precautions of Pharmaceutical use ?
be aware of any drugs that may be harmful
wash hands after filling prescriptions
wear gloves when preparing or applying medications to pets
use caution with syringes and needles
Do NOT recap syringes !
A gas sterilization agent, most commonly known in vet clinics as the "blue box" sterilization system.
What are hazrads associated with ethylene oxide use ?
1. Flammable, ptentially explosive
2. Causes severe burns on the skin, eye irritation, corneal injury
3. Gas ethylene oxide may cause acute irritaion of the resp. system, heachache, nausea, vomiting
How does excessive levels of ethylene oxide occur?
Accidental breakage, ampule spills or breathing gas from broken ampule
Breathing vapours from a box opened before sterilization is finished
Breathing vapours given off by newly sterilized loads
What are the safety precautions of Ethylene oxide use ?
All employees who handle ethylene oxide must be properly trained
Planned emergency procedures including evacuation must be in place
Written procedures should include Proper loading and unloading of the sterilizer
What are the signs and symptoms of mercury exposure ?
Chronic exposure may lead to emotional instability, gingivitis, weight loss, renal damage
Inhalation of mercury vapours is a serious hazard
Safety precautiosn for mercury spillage ?
Specialized clean up kits are available
Wear gloves when cleaning up mercury spills
How do you properly clean up mercury?
put on gloves and use a stiff paper or cardboard to gently push the mercury droplest together
use a syringe or pipette to pick up tiny droplets
captured mercury should then be placed in a sealed container and disposed as hazardous waste
What should a person do if a chemical is splashed into the eyes?
Call for help first
Remove contact lenses if present
Flush Both eyes continously for 15mins with lukewarm or cold water, using eyewash fountain or bottle.
Seek medical attention, bring the labeled bottle or MSDS
What should you do if a toxic chemical is ingested?
Seek medical attention immediately
Call the posion control center for advice
The MSDS sheet or label should be sent with the person seeking medical help
What should you do if toxic vapours are inhaled ?
Go into a well ventilated area, outdoors is best
Call for help and seek medical attention
What must extinguishers be inspected for , to ensure?
Free of obstructions
Seals and pins are in place
What should you do if a fire occurs ?
Call for help
Ensure that all persons in the building are immediatly informed and evacuated
Oxygen tanks and natural gas lines should be turned off
Evacuation of animals may be possible depending on location and size of fire
If small fire, use fire extinguisher. Dont attempt to fight a fire if
: Spreading beyond immediate start area, could block your escape route
Steps for cleaning chemical spills
Small amount - absorb and sweep up, dispose in airtight container
If spill gives off potentially hazardous vapours - open all doors and windows, leave the area
If contact with ethylene oxide - contaminated clothing should be removed, skin should be flushed
How do you properly prepare staff for emergencies ?
All persons should undergo fire safety training
Have an evacuation plan
Emergency telephone numbers should be posted at every phone station
Every employee must know the location of all the extinguisher, spill kits, eye wash fountains, PPE
What are some sources of energy emissions ?
Ultra violet light
Video display terminals (computer screens)
Consist of photons of energy traveling at the speed of light. Microwave ovens, light bulbs, x-ray machines all produce it.
Does not penetrate tissues very well. Ex. Light. If it does penetrate tissures like radio waves it will pass with minimal effects.
Very high doses can damage tissue (ultraviolet radiation)
What are some sources of Non-ionizing radiation ?
Ultraviolet lamps (woops lamp)
Videos display terminals
Causes the formation of ions and free radicals as it passes through tissues. May cause chromosomal damage and other serious effects
What are sources of Ionizing radiation?
Why can x-rays be hazardous?
Cannot be detected by human senses
They are able to penetrate human tissue, could damage the skin and underlying organs
Causes chromosomal damage and sometimes cell death
What are some commonly observed problems in a vet clinic dealing with x-rays ?
of the x-ray beam
Routinely taking x-rays without PPE
, or using protective equipment that is damaged
Staff allowing bare hand to be exposed
to the direct x-ray beam. Most damaging
How do you protect yourself from x-ray radiation ?
Avoid unecessary exposure
Decrease exposure time
Increase distance from source
Shield yourself from exposure (lead PPE)
What are the 2 ways radiation exposure can occur ?
Contact with the primary beam. Most serious.
Scatter radiation. Radiation bounces off of the object being radigraphed rather than penetrating it.
What are the precautions when taking xrays?
Dont take more xrays than you have to
Use the least amount of radiation possible
Stand as far from the beam as possible
Special precautions for portable units
Monitor exposure levels
Monitor the machine
Designate a radiation safety person
Special precautions for fluorscopy