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What is the
definition of emotion?
Short in duration, these brief and specific psychological and physiological reactions to thought, behavior, and etc. help humans achieve social and other goals.
Broaden-and-build hypothesis (Barbara Fredrickson)
positive emotions help build social resources by broadening thought and action ranges.
- no matter how long the emotion lasts it will skew how the experience is judged
- wither it is pleasurable or not.
- predicting future emotions – wither an event will be happy, sad, make you angry and how
- long it will stay with you.
Gilbert and Wilson
- people tend to overestimate how much a romantic breakup will diminish their life
the over estimation of how much a negative even will affect their life satisfaction or well-being because they underestimate their resilience
neglecting to consider the impact of ancillary aspect of the even or the impact of other events because you focus too much on a central aspect of a particular event.
Processing style perspective
the theory that different emotions lead people to reason in different ways. Anger relies on preexisting heuristics and stereotypes and sadness would cause careful attention to situational details
Emotions are also specific (you know what you are having an emotion about) and the specific cause of emotion
the difference between emotion and other experiences is its bodily response.
- emotions are defined by the expressions we make with our body that give clues to others
- what we are experiencing.
The way that a person appraises a situation or thing in their surroundings based on their relation to a current goal.
- The theme that correlates to the emotion being experienced, such as danger being
- the core of fear.
Primary appraisal stage
- the first automatic deciding if a particular event is congruent or incongruent with
- a person’s goals
Secondary appraisal stage
after the primary appraisal stage you look at the situation to figure out why you feel the way that you do about/in it. Then consider the different ways of responding to the situation and weigh different actions against future consequences.
Different kinds of smiles
polite smile (non-Duchenne) won’t crinkle up the corners of your mouth. Duchenne is an enjoyment kind of smile.
Principle of serviceable habits
the emotions we see in humans today are a remnant of what helped our primate ancestors to meet goals. Those that were serviceable to our ancestors were passed on to us.
Expression of emotion posits universally
We have the same facial muscles (survived extinction through natural selection)
We have similar expressions to our primate mammalian ancestors
our expressions resemble that of other species because we have a distant relative.
the tendency to show emotion in a particular way is encoded in the human nervous system
Blind people still show the same emotions as those who can see the emotional expressions of others
What group did Ekman and Friesen go to to test facial recognition of facial expression?
Fore tribe (no contact in any way with western civilization or movies etc.)
there are some culturally specific ways that people express particular emotions. Ex. in India they bite their tongue to show embarrassment.
the emotions that are most common in a particular culture
Why are expressions of shame more predominant in interdependent cultures
- Expressions of shame are drawn from cultures that are interdependent because they have
- harmed the social collective.
when a particular emotion is expressed with many words and concepts. Some cultures have more words to describe and emotion than others.
the specific rules about what and how an emotion is expressed in a particular culture. Ex. not laughing when your date falls on the ice
Diane Mackie and Eliot Smith – intergroup emotion theory
- group members in one group experience emotions towards another group according
- to their identification with their own group and feelings of strength or weakness relative to the outgroup. Anger and contempt for outgroups that are perceived as inferior or weaker than the group. If they feel weaker than the outgroup they will show fear.
the reluctance to allow that outgroup members can have complex emotions like pride or compassion
the”theory that since many judgments are too complex for people to thoroughly review all the relevant evidence, they rely on their emotions to provide them with rapid, reliable, information about events and conditions within their social environment.
What are the ABC's of attitude
- 1.how much a person or people like or dislike an item
- a. Feelings toward object (frustrated, love,
- happiness, etc.)
- 1. if they avoid it they don’t like it if they
- gravitate towards it they do.
- a. Actions exhibited in relation to object
- 1. the thoughts that reinforce the feelings or
- a. I think…
Implicit attitude measures
measures the attitude of a person that may be unwilling to report their true feelings (such as prejudices).
immediate attitude reactions that a person may be unconscious of
LaPiere Study in the 1930’s
- Traveling across the united states with
- a Chinese couple at time when
- anti-chinese prejudice was high Surprisingly they were only denied service at 1 out of 250 places they visited
- However, when each place was later contacted and asked if they would serve Chinese they said they would not.